A Unifying Framework for the Analysis and Design of Artificial Cognitive Systems

Author: Giovanni Pezzulo,Martin V. Butz,Cristiano Castelfranchi,Rino Falcone

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540877010

Category: Computers

Page: 288

View: 9068

The general idea that brains anticipate the future, that they engage in prediction, and that one means of doing this is through some sort of inner model that can be run of?ine,hasalonghistory. SomeversionoftheideawascommontoAristotle,aswell as to many medieval scholastics, to Leibniz and Hume, and in more recent times, to Kenneth Craik and Philip Johnson-Laird. One reason that this general idea recurs continually is that this is the kind of picture that introspection paints. When we are engaged in tasks it seems that we form images that are predictions, or anticipations, and that these images are isomorphic to what they represent. But as much as the general idea recurs, opposition to it also recurs. The idea has never been widely accepted, or uncontroversial among psychologists, cognitive scientists and neuroscientists. The main reason has been that science cannot be s- is?ed with metaphors and introspection. In order to gain acceptance, an idea needs to be formulated clearly enough so that it can be used to construct testable hypot- ses whose results will clearly supportor cast doubtupon the hypothesis. Next, those ideasthatare formulablein one oranothersortof symbolismor notationare capable of being modeled, and modeling is a huge part of cognitive neuroscience. If an idea cannot be clearly modeled, then there are limits to how widely it can be tested and accepted by a cognitive neuroscience community.
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A Primer

Author: David Vernon

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262326701

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 5106

This book offers a concise and accessible introduction to the emerging field of artificial cognitive systems. Cognition, both natural and artificial, is about anticipating the need for action and developing the capacity to predict the outcome of those actions. Drawing on artificial intelligence, developmental psychology, and cognitive neuroscience, the field of artificial cognitive systems has as its ultimate goal the creation of computer-based systems that can interact with humans and serve society in a variety of ways. This primer brings together recent work in cognitive science and cognitive robotics to offer readers a solid grounding on key issues.The book first develops a working definition of cognitive systems -- broad enough to encompass multiple views of the subject and deep enough to help in the formulation of theories and models. It surveys the cognitivist, emergent, and hybrid paradigms of cognitive science and discusses cognitive architectures derived from them. It then turns to the key issues, with chapters devoted to autonomy, embodiment, learning and development, memory and prospection, knowledge and representation, and social cognition. Ideas are introduced in an intuitive, natural order, with an emphasis on the relationships among ideas and building to an overview of the field. The main text is straightforward and succinct; sidenotes drill deeper on specific topics and provide contextual links to further reading.
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Frameworks, Tools and Applications

Author: Arun Kumar Sangaiah,Arunkumar Thangavelu,Venkatesan Meenakshi Sundaram

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319706888

Category: Computers

Page: 375

View: 5125

This book brings a high level of fluidity to analytics and addresses recent trends, innovative ideas, challenges and cognitive computing solutions in big data and the Internet of Things (IoT). It explores domain knowledge, data science reasoning and cognitive methods in the context of the IoT, extending current data science approaches by incorporating insights from experts as well as a notion of artificial intelligence, and performing inferences on the knowledge The book provides a comprehensive overview of the constituent paradigms underlying cognitive computing methods, which illustrate the increased focus on big data in IoT problems as they evolve. It includes novel, in-depth fundamental research contributions from a methodological/application in data science accomplishing sustainable solution for the future perspective. Mainly focusing on the design of the best cognitive embedded data science technologies to process and analyze the large amount of data collected through the IoT, and aid better decision making, the book discusses adapting decision-making approaches under cognitive computing paradigms to demonstrate how the proposed procedures as well as big data and IoT problems can be handled in practice. This book is a valuable resource for scientists, professionals, researchers, and academicians dealing with the new challenges and advances in the specific areas of cognitive computing and data science approaches.
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Computer and Human Vision Perspectives

Author: Sven J. Dickinson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521887380

Category: Computers

Page: 536

View: 1282

A unique multidisciplinary perspective on the problem of visual object categorization.
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Usability, Workflow and Cognitive Support in Electronic Health Records

Author: Jiajie Zhang (Professor of biomedical informatics),Muhammad Walji

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780692262962

Category:

Page: 384

View: 2377

Electronic Health Records (EHR) offer great potential to increase healthcare efficiency, improve patient safety, and reduce health costs. The adoption of EHRs among office-based physicians in the US has increased from 20% ten years ago to over 80% in 2014. Among acute care hospitals in US, the adoption rate today is approaching 100%. Finding relevant patient information in electronic health records' (EHRs) large datasets is difficult, especially when organized only by data type and time. Automated clinical summarization creates condition-specific displays, promising improved clinician efficiency. However, automated summarization requires new kinds of clinical knowledge (e.g., problem-medication relationships).
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Cognitive Computing Fundamentals for Better Decision Making

Author: Patanjali Kashyap

Publisher: Apress

ISBN: 1484229886

Category: Computers

Page: 355

View: 4974

Take a deep dive into the concepts of machine learning as they apply to contemporary business and management. You will learn how machine learning techniques are used to solve fundamental and complex problems in society and industry. Machine Learning for Decision Makers serves as an excellent resource for establishing the relationship of machine learning with IoT, big data, and cognitive and cloud computing to give you an overview of how these modern areas of computing relate to each other. This book introduces a collection of the most important concepts of machine learning and sets them in context with other vital technologies that decision makers need to know about. These concepts span the process from envisioning the problem to applying machine-learning techniques to your particular situation. This discussion also provides an insight to help deploy the results to improve decision-making. The book uses case studies and jargon busting to help you grasp the theory of machine learning quickly. You'll soon gain the big picture of machine learning and how it fits with other cutting-edge IT services. This knowledge will give you confidence in your decisions for the future of your business. What You Will Learn Discover the machine learning, big data, and cloud and cognitive computing technology stack Gain insights into machine learning concepts and practices Understand business and enterprise decision-making using machine learning Absorb machine-learning best practices Who This Book Is For Managers tasked with making key decisions who want to learn how and when machine learning and related technologies can help them.
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Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464963509

Category: Medical

Page: 3453

View: 1274

Issues in Discovery, Experimental, and Laboratory Medicine: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Discovery, Experimental, and Laboratory Medicine. The editors have built Issues in Discovery, Experimental, and Laboratory Medicine: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Discovery, Experimental, and Laboratory Medicine in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Discovery, Experimental, and Laboratory Medicine: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.
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Author: Jonathan P. Bowen,Michael G. Hinchey

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1447134311

Category: Computers

Page: 701

View: 719

Errata, detected in Taylor's Logarithms. London: 4to, 1792. [sic] 14.18.3 6 Kk Co-sine of 3398 3298 - Nautical Almanac (1832) In the list of ERRATA detected in Taylor's Logarithms, for cos. 4° 18'3", read cos. 14° 18'2". - Nautical Almanac (1833) ERRATUM ofthe ERRATUM ofthe ERRATA of TAYLOR'S Logarithms. For cos. 4° 18'3", read cos. 14° 18' 3". - Nautical Almanac (1836) In the 1820s, an Englishman named Charles Babbage designed and partly built a calculating machine originally intended for use in deriving and printing logarithmic and other tables used in the shipping industry. At that time, such tables were often inaccurate, copied carelessly, and had been instrumental in causing a number of maritime disasters. Babbage's machine, called a 'Difference Engine' because it performed its cal culations using the principle of partial differences, was intended to substantially reduce the number of errors made by humans calculating the tables. Babbage had also designed (but never built) a forerunner of the modern printer, which would also reduce the number of errors admitted during the transcription of the results. Nowadays, a system implemented to perform the function of Babbage's engine would be classed as safety-critical. That is, the failure of the system to produce correct results could result in the loss of human life, mass destruction of property (in the form of ships and cargo) as well as financial losses and loss of competitive advantage for the shipping firm.
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Basic Principles

Author: Wen-tsün Wu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 370916639X

Category: Computers

Page: 288

View: 9567

There seems to be no doubt that geometry originates from such practical activ ities as weather observation and terrain survey. But there are different manners, methods, and ways to raise the various experiences to the level of theory so that they finally constitute a science. F. Engels said, "The objective of mathematics is the study of space forms and quantitative relations of the real world. " Dur ing the time of the ancient Greeks, there were two different methods dealing with geometry: one, represented by the Euclid's "Elements," purely pursued the logical relations among geometric entities, excluding completely the quantita tive relations, as to establish the axiom system of geometry. This method has become a model of deduction methods in mathematics. The other, represented by the relevant work of Archimedes, focused on the study of quantitative re lations of geometric objects as well as their measures such as the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter and the area of a spherical surface and of a parabolic sector. Though these approaches vary in style, have their own features, and reflect different viewpoints in the development of geometry, both have made great contributions to the development of mathematics. The development of geometry in China was all along concerned with quanti tative relations.
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Recent Progress on Classical Combinatorial Optimization Problems and New Applications

Author: Evripidis Bampis,Klaus Jansen,Claire Kenyon

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540322122

Category: Computers

Page: 347

View: 7816

This book provides a good opportunity for computer science practitioners and researchers to get in sync with current state-of-the-art and future trends in the field of combinatorial optimization and online algorithms. Recent advances in this area are presented focusing on the design of efficient approximation and on-line algorithms. One central idea in the book is to use a linear program relaxation of the problem, randomization and rounding techniques.
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Author: Allen Newell

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674921016

Category: Psychology

Page: 549

View: 2363

Psychology is now ready for unified theories of cognition--so says Allen Newell, a leading investigator in computer science and cognitive psychology. Not everyone will agree on a single set of mechanisms that will explain the full range of human cognition, but such theories are within reach and we should strive to articulate them. In this book, Newell makes the case for unified theories by setting forth a candidate. After reviewing the foundational concepts of cognitive science--knowledge, representation, computation, symbols, architecture, intelligence, and search--Newell introduces Soar, an architecture for general cognition. A pioneer system in artificial intelligence, Soar is the first problem solver to create its own subgoals and learn continuously from its own experience. Newell shows how Soar's ability to operate within the real-time constraints of intelligent behavior, such as immediate-response and item-recognition tasks, illustrates important characteristics of the human cognitive structure. Throughout, Soar remains an exemplar: we know only enough to work toward a fully developed theory of cognition, but Soar's success so far establishes the viability of the enterprise. Given its integrative approach, Unified Theories of Cognition will be of tremendous interest to researchers in a variety of fields, including cognitive science, artificial intelligence, psychology, and computer science. This exploration of the nature of mind, one of the great problems of philosophy, should also transcend disciplines and attract a large scientific audience.
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Author: T R Padmanabhan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811032777

Category: Computers

Page: 344

View: 6678

Based on the latest version of the language, this book offers a self-contained, concise and coherent introduction to programming with Python. The book’s primary focus is on realistic case study applications of Python. Each practical example is accompanied by a brief explanation of the problem-terminology and concepts, followed by necessary program development in Python using its constructs, and simulated testing. Given the open and participatory nature of development, Python has a variety of incorporated data structures, which has made it difficult to present it in a coherent manner. Further, some advanced concepts (super, yield, generator, decorator, etc.) are not easy to explain. The book specially addresses these challenges; starting with a minimal subset of the core, it offers users a step-by-step guide to achieving proficiency.
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Philosophical, Mathematical and Methodological Foundations

Author: Robert Rosen

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483286274

Category: Science

Page: 446

View: 9206

The first detailed study of this most important class of systems which contain internal predictive models of themselves and/or of their environments and whose predictions are utilized for purposes of present control. This book develops the basic concept of a predictive model, and shows how it can be embedded into a system of feedforward control. Includes many examples and stresses analogies between wired-in anticipatory control and processes of learning and adaption, at both individual and social levels. Shows how the basic theory of such systems throws a new light both on analytic problems (understanding what is going on in an organism or a social system) and synthetic ones (developing forecasting methods for making individual or collective decisions).
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A Brief History of Humankind

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: Harper Collins

ISBN: 0062316109

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 5389

New York Times Bestseller A Summer Reading Pick for President Barack Obama, Bill Gates, and Mark Zuckerberg From a renowned historian comes a groundbreaking narrative of humanity’s creation and evolution—a #1 international bestseller—that explores the ways in which biology and history have defined us and enhanced our understanding of what it means to be “human.” One hundred thousand years ago, at least six different species of humans inhabited Earth. Yet today there is only one—homo sapiens. What happened to the others? And what may happen to us? Most books about the history of humanity pursue either a historical or a biological approach, but Dr. Yuval Noah Harari breaks the mold with this highly original book that begins about 70,000 years ago with the appearance of modern cognition. From examining the role evolving humans have played in the global ecosystem to charting the rise of empires, Sapiens integrates history and science to reconsider accepted narratives, connect past developments with contemporary concerns, and examine specific events within the context of larger ideas. Dr. Harari also compels us to look ahead, because over the last few decades humans have begun to bend laws of natural selection that have governed life for the past four billion years. We are acquiring the ability to design not only the world around us, but also ourselves. Where is this leading us, and what do we want to become? Featuring 27 photographs, 6 maps, and 25 illustrations/diagrams, this provocative and insightful work is sure to spark debate and is essential reading for aficionados of Jared Diamond, James Gleick, Matt Ridley, Robert Wright, and Sharon Moalem.
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The Foundations of Human-centred Systems Design

Author: Karamjit S. Gill

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1447132475

Category: Computers

Page: 480

View: 1466

There is now a serious discussion taking place about the moment at which human beings will be surpassed and replaced by the machine. On the one hand we are designing machines which embed more and more human intelligence, but at the same time we are in danger of becoming more and more like machines. In these circumstances, we all need to consider: • What can we do? • What should we do? • What are the alternatives of doing it? This book is about the human-centred alternative of designing systems and technologies. This alternative is rooted in the European tradition of human-centredness which emphasises the symbiosis of human capabilities and machine capacity. The human-centred tra dition celebrates the diversity of human skill and ingenuity and provides an alternative to the 'mechanistic' paradigm of 'one best way', the 'sameness of science' and the 'dream of the exact language'. This alternative vision has its origin in the founding European human-centred movements of the 1970s. These include the British movement of Socially Useful Technology, the Scandinavian move ment of Democratic Participation, and the German movement of Humanisation of Work and Technology. The present volume brings together various strands of human-centred systems philosophy which span the conceptual richness and cultural diversity of the human-centred movements. The core ideas of human-centredness include human-machine symbiosis, the tacit dimension of knowl edge, the system as a tool rather than a machine, dialogue, partici pation, social shaping and usability.
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Different Understandings of Design

Author: Silke Konsorski-Lang,Michael Hampe

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540690023

Category: Computers

Page: 300

View: 7545

Design is eminent throughout different disciplines of science, engineering, humanities, and art. However, within these disciplines, the way in which the term design is understood and applied differs significantly. There still is a profound lack of interdisciplinary research on this issue. The same term is not even guaranteed to carry the same meaning as soon as one crosses over to other disciplines. Therefore, related synergies between disciplines remain largely unexplored and unexploited.This book will address design in the hope of promoting a deeper understanding of it across various disciplines, and to support Design Science as a discipline, which attempts to cover the vast number of currently isolated knowledge sources.
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Author: Simon Emmerson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107118328

Category: Computers

Page: 428

View: 2753

A state-of-the-art overview of the analysis of electroacoustic music, which includes discussions of a wide range of works.
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A System-Theoretical Approach

Author: T. Kohonen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642963846

Category: Science

Page: 178

View: 7167

About the Scope of This Text This book contains two types of material ~ first, the many divergent and often diffuse meanings given to the concepts of association, associative memory, and associative recaZZ are expounded. A review of this kind was felt necessary because there apparently does not exist any single monograph which could serve as a reference to these topics. But the presentation of the main body of this text is motivated by quite other reasons: in recent years, plenty of interesting mathematical and system-theoretical material has been published which makes it possible to gain a view of associative memory which is different from the conventional abstract and computationally oriented approaches. It seems that the basic operation of associative memory, the storage of information together with the relations or links between the data items, and the selective recall of stored information relative to a piece of key or cue information presented, is not restricted to certain computer-technological implementations but can also be reflected in more general mathematically describable processes in certain physical or other systems, especially in their adaptive state changes. It further seems that some generally known forms of associative memory, namely, certain computer technological artifacts, or abstract systems of concepts or data, are in fact special representations of a class of processes characterized as associative memory.
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Author: Yael Helfman Cohen,Yoram Reich

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319339974

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 254

View: 4917

Presenting a novel biomimetic design method for transferring design solutions from nature to technology, this book focuses on structure-function patterns in nature and advanced modeling tools derived from TRIZ, the theory of inventive problem-solving. The book includes an extensive literature review on biomimicry as an engine of both innovation and sustainability, and discusses in detail the biomimetic design process, current biomimetic design methods and tools. The structural biomimetic design method for innovation and sustainability put forward in this text encompasses (1) the research method and rationale used to develop and validate this new design method; (2) the suggested design algorithm and tools including the Find structure database, structure-function patterns and ideality patterns; and (3) analyses of four case studies describing how to use the proposed method. This book offers an essential resource for designers who wish to use nature as a source of inspiration and knowledge, innovators and sustainability experts, and scientists and researchers, amongst others.
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