Author: John von Neumann,Ray Kurzweil

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300181116

Category: Computers

Page: 83

View: 1005

First published in 1958, John von Neumann's classic work "The Computer and the Brain" explored the analogies between computing machines and the living human brain. Von Neumann showed that the brain operates both digitally and analogically, but also has its own unique statistical language. And more than fifty years after its inception the "von Neumann architecture"--An organizational framework for computer design - still lies at the heart of today's machines. In his foreword to this new edition, Ray Kurzweil, a futurist famous for his own musings on the relationship between technology and consciousness, places von Neumann's work in a historical context and shows how it remains relevant today.
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The Scientific Genius who Pioneered the Modern Computer, Game Theory, Nuclear Deterrence, and Much More

Author: Norman Macrae

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821826768

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 405

View: 735

Von Neumann is a well-known name in mathematics and was a very controversial figure because of his political views. Attractive four-color cover. This is a biography, and should do well in a number of different subject areas beyond mathematics (can be promoted in the general sciences areas).
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Author: William Aspray

Publisher: Mit Press

ISBN: 9780262518857

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 396

View: 5281

John von Neumann (1903-1957) was unquestionably one of the most brilliant scientists of the twentieth century. He made major contributions to quantum mechanics and mathematical physics and in 1943 began a new and all-too-short career in computer science. William Aspray provides the first broad and detailed account of von Neumann's many different contributions to computing. These, Aspray reveals, extended far beyond his well-known work in the design and construction of computer systems to include important scientific applications, the revival of numerical analysis, and the creation of a theory of computing.Aspray points out that from the beginning von Neumann took a wider and more theoretical view than other computer pioneers. In the now famous EDVAC report of 1945, von Neumann clearly stated the idea of a stored program that resides in the computer's memory along with the data it was to operate on. This stored program computer was described in terms of idealized neurons, highlighting the analogy between the digital computer and the human brain. Aspray describes von Neumann's development during the next decade, and almost entirely alone, of a theory of complicated information processing systems, or automata, and the introduction of themes such as learning, reliability of systems with unreliable components, self-replication, and the importance of memory and storage capacity in biological nervous systems; many of these themes remain at the heart of current investigations in parallel or neurocomputing.Aspray allows the record to speak for itself. He unravels an intricate sequence of stories generated by von Neumann's work and brings into focus the interplay of personalities centered about von Neumann. He documents the complex interactions of science, the military, and business and shows how progress in applied mathematics was intertwined with that in computers.William Aspray is Director of the Center for the History of Electrical Engineering at The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
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Author: John von Neumann

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400883954

Category: Mathematics

Page: 312

View: 6825

In his work on rings of operators in Hilbert space, John von Neumann discovered a new mathematical structure that resembled the lattice system Ln. In characterizing its properties, von Neumann founded the field of continuous geometry. This book, based on von Neumann's lecture notes, begins with the development of the axioms of continuous geometry, dimension theory, and--for the irreducible case--the function D(a). The properties of regular rings are then discussed, and a variety of results are presented for lattices that are continuous geometries, for which irreducibility is not assumed. For students and researchers interested in ring theory or projective geometries, this book is required reading.
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Symbols, Signals and Noise

Author: John R. Pierce

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486134970

Category: Computers

Page: 336

View: 6844

Covers encoding and binary digits, entropy, language and meaning, efficient encoding and the noisy channel, and explores ways in which information theory relates to physics, cybernetics, psychology, and art. 1980 edition.
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Author: Jacob Bronowski

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300157185

Category: Psychology

Page: 268

View: 9418

“A gem of enlightenment. . . . One rejoices in Bronowski’s dedication to the identity of acts of creativity and of imagination, whether in Blake or Yeats or Einstein or Heisenberg.”—Kirkus Reviews “According to Bronowski, our account of the world is dictated by our biology: how we perceive, imagine, symbolize, etc. He proposes to explain how we receive and translate our experience of the world so that we achieve knowledge. He examines the mechanisms of our perception; the origin and nature of natural language; formal systems and scientific discourse; and how science, as a systematic attempt to establish closed systems one after another, progresses by exploring its own errors and new but unforeseen connections. . . . A delightful look at the inquiring mind.”—Library Journal “Eminently enjoyable to read, with a good story or ‘bon mot’ on every page.”—Nature “A well-written and brilliantly presented defense of the scientific enterprise which could be especially valuable to scientists and to teachers of science at all levels.”—AAAS Science Books & Films Contents 1. The Mind as an Instrument for Understanding 2. The Evolution and Power of Symbolic Language 3. Knowledge as Algorithm and as Metaphor 4. The Laws of Nature and the Nature of Laws 5. Error, Progress, and the Concept of Time 6. Law and Individual Responsibility
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New Edition

Author: John von Neumann

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400889928

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 8831

Quantum mechanics was still in its infancy in 1932 when the young John von Neumann, who would go on to become one of the greatest mathematicians of the twentieth century, published Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics--a revolutionary book that for the first time provided a rigorous mathematical framework for the new science. Robert Beyer's 1955 English translation, which von Neumann reviewed and approved, is cited more frequently today than ever before. But its many treasures and insights were too often obscured by the limitations of the way the text and equations were set on the page. In this new edition of this classic work, mathematical physicist Nicholas Wheeler has completely reset the book in TeX, making the text and equations far easier to read. He has also corrected a handful of typographic errors, revised some sentences for clarity and readability, provided an index for the first time, and added prefatory remarks drawn from the writings of Léon Van Hove and Freeman Dyson. The result brings new life to an essential work in theoretical physics and mathematics.
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Author: John von Neumann,Oskar Morgenstern

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691130612

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 739

View: 1897

First published in 1944, this book, co-written by an economist & a mathematician, conceived a groundbreaking theory of economic & social organisation based on a theory of games of strategy. The result was a revolution in economics & game theory has since emerged as a major tool of analysis in many other fields.
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Author: Stephen E. Nadeau

Publisher: W B Saunders Company

ISBN: 9780721602493

Category: Medical

Page: 650

View: 2370

This introductory neuroscience text is written specifically for medical students. It focuses on the basic neuroscientific knowledge base that the physician generalist needs in order to deal intelligently and flexibly with the clinical problems she or he will face. The primary goal of the text is vertical integration: the concept that the teaching of neuroscience through the four years of medical school should be a highly organized, seamless process that assures acquisition of the neurologic skills and knowledge demanded of today's medical generalist.
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Foundations of Computational Neuroscience

Author: William W. Lytton

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387227334

Category: Mathematics

Page: 364

View: 5241

Biology undergraduates, medical students and life-science graduate students often have limited mathematical skills. Similarly, physics, math and engineering students have little patience for the detailed facts that make up much of biological knowledge. Teaching computational neuroscience as an integrated discipline requires that both groups be brought forward onto common ground. This book does this by making ancillary material available in an appendix and providing basic explanations without becoming bogged down in unnecessary details. The book will be suitable for undergraduates and beginning graduate students taking a computational neuroscience course and also to anyone with an interest in the uses of the computer in modeling the nervous system.
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Author: Richard Goldschmidt

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300028232

Category: Science

Page: 436

View: 1406

An eminent geneticist examines the Darwinian theory of evolution, analyzes the hereditary differences that produce new species, and suggests changes in evolutionary theory based on his biological research
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From Basic Principles to Complex Intelligent Systems

Author: Bernhard Sendhoff,Edgar Körner,Olaf Sporns,Helge Ritter,Kenji Doya

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642006159

Category: Medical

Page: 351

View: 3813

TheInternationalSymposiumCreatingBrain-LikeIntelligencewasheldinFeb- ary 2007 in Germany. The symposium brought together notable scientists from di?erent backgrounds and with di?erent expertise related to the emerging ?eld of brain-like intelligence. Our understanding of the principles behind brain-like intelligence is still limited. After all, we have had to acknowledge that after tremendous advances in areas like neural networks, computational and arti?cial intelligence (a ?eld that had just celebrated its 50 year anniversary) and fuzzy systems, we are still not able to mimic even the lower-level sensory capabilities of humans or animals. We asked what the biggest obstacles are and how we could gain ground toward a scienti?c understanding of the autonomy, ?exibility, and robustness of intelligent biological systems as they strive to survive. New principles are usually found at the interfaces between existing disciplines, and traditional boundaries between disciplines have to be broken down to see how complex systems become simple and how the puzzle can be assembled. During the symposium we could identify some recurring themes that p- vaded many of the talks and discussions. The triad of structure, dynamics and environment,theroleoftheenvironmentasanactivepartnerinshapingsystems, adaptivity on all scales (learning, development, evolution) and the amalga- tion of an internal and external world in brain-like intelligence rate high among them. Each of us is rooted in a certain community which we have to serve with the results of our research. Looking beyond our ?elds and working at the interfaces between established areas of research requires e?ort and an active process.
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Author: William Poundstone

Publisher: Anchor

ISBN: 0307763781

Category: Mathematics

Page: 320

View: 6392

Should you watch public television without pledging?...Exceed the posted speed limit?...Hop a subway turnstile without paying? These questions illustrate the so-called "prisoner's dilemma", a social puzzle that we all face every day. Though the answers may seem simple, their profound implications make the prisoner's dilemma one of the great unifying concepts of science. Watching players bluff in a poker game inspired John von Neumann—father of the modern computer and one of the sharpest minds of the century—to construct game theory, a mathematical study of conflict and deception. Game theory was readily embraced at the RAND Corporation, the archetypical think tank charged with formulating military strategy for the atomic age, and in 1950 two RAND scientists made a momentous discovery. Called the "prisoner's dilemma," it is a disturbing and mind-bending game where two or more people may betray the common good for individual gain. Introduced shortly after the Soviet Union acquired the atomic bomb, the prisoner's dilemma quickly became a popular allegory of the nuclear arms race. Intellectuals such as von Neumann and Bertrand Russell joined military and political leaders in rallying to the "preventive war" movement, which advocated a nuclear first strike against the Soviet Union. Though the Truman administration rejected preventive war the United States entered into an arms race with the Soviets and game theory developed into a controversial tool of public policy—alternately accused of justifying arms races and touted as the only hope of preventing them. A masterful work of science writing, Prisoner's Dilemma weaves together a biography of the brilliant and tragic von Neumann, a history of pivotal phases of the cold war, and an investigation of game theory's far-reaching influence on public policy today. Most important, Prisoner's Dilemma is the incisive story of a revolutionary idea that has been hailed as a landmark of twentieth-century thought.
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Nine Steps to Living Well Forever

Author: Ray Kurzweil,Terry Grossman

Publisher: Rodale

ISBN: 1605292079

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 480

View: 1471

In Transcend, famed futurist Ray Kurzweil and his coauthor Terry Grossman, MD, present a cutting edge, accessible program based on the vanguard in nutrition and science. They’ve distilled thousands of scientific studies to make the case that new developments in medicine and technology will allow us to radically extend our life expectancies and slow the aging process. Transcend gives you the practical tools you need to live long enough (and remain healthy long enough) to take full advantage of the biotech and nanotech advances that have already begun and will continue to occur at an accelerating pace during the years ahead. To help you remember the nine key components of the program, Ray and Terry have arranged them into a mnemonic: Talk with your doctor, Relaxation, Assessment, Nutrition, Supplements, Calorie reduction, Exercise, New technologies, Detoxification. This easy-to-follow program will help you transcend the boundaries of your genetic legacy and live long enough to live forever.
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Author: David D. Luxton

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128007923

Category: Psychology

Page: 308

View: 7914

Artificial Intelligence in Behavioral and Mental Health Care summarizes recent advances in artificial intelligence as it applies to mental health clinical practice. Each chapter provides a technical description of the advance, review of application in clinical practice, and empirical data on clinical efficacy. In addition, each chapter includes a discussion of practical issues in clinical settings, ethical considerations, and limitations of use. The book encompasses AI based advances in decision-making, in assessment and treatment, in providing education to clients, robot assisted task completion, and the use of AI for research and data gathering. This book will be of use to mental health practitioners interested in learning about, or incorporating AI advances into their practice and for researchers interested in a comprehensive review of these advances in one source. Summarizes AI advances for use in mental health practice Includes advances in AI based decision-making and consultation Describes AI applications for assessment and treatment Details AI advances in robots for clinical settings Provides empirical data on clinical efficacy Explores practical issues of use in clinical settings
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Author: William Bateson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108053084

Category: History

Page: 280

View: 7251

These lectures, published in 1913, illuminate the formation of theories that are central to modern genetics.
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Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080861586

Category: Medical

Page: 262

View: 8822

Computers and Brains
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Author: William Osler

Publisher: Sagwan Press

ISBN: 9781376716931

Category: History

Page: 268

View: 5155

This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.
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Computation As Done by Brains and Machines

Author: James A. Anderson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199357781

Category: Computers

Page: 400

View: 4375

Current computer technology doubles in in power roughly every two years, an increase called "Moore's Law." This constant increase is predicted to come to an end soon. Digital technology will change. Although digital computers dominate today's world, there are alternative ways to "compute," which might be better and more efficient than digital computation. After Digital looks at where the field of computation began and where it might be headed, and offers predictions about a collaborative future relationship between human cognition and mechanical computation. James A. Anderson, a pioneer of biologically inspired neural nets, presents two different kinds of computation-digital and analog--and gives examples of their history, function, and limitations. A third, the brain, falls somewhere in between these two forms, and is suggested as a computer architecture that is more capable of performing some specific important cognitive tasks-perception, reasoning, and intuition, for example- than a digital computer, even though the digital computer is constructed from far faster and more reliable basic elements. Anderson discusses the essentials of brain hardware, in particular, the cerebral cortex, and how cortical structure can influence the form taken by the computational operations underlying cognition. Topics include association, understanding complex systems through analogy, formation of abstractions, the biology of number and its use in arithmetic and mathematics, and computing across scales of organization. These applications, of great human interest, also form the goals of genuine artificial intelligence. After Digital will appeal to a broad cognitive science community, including computer scientists, philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists, as well as the curious science layreader, and will help to understand and shape future developments in computation.
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