Author: Ian Stewart,Professor of Math and Gresham Professor of Geometry Ian Stewart,David Tall,David Orme Tall
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
"There are many textbooks available for a so-called transition course from calculus to abstract mathematics. I have taught this course several times and always find it problematic. The Foundations of Mathematics (Stewart and Tall) is a horse of a different color. The writing is excellent and there is actually some useful mathematics. I definitely like this book."--The Bulletin of Mathematics Books
Author: Raymond L. Wilder
Publisher: Courier Corporation
Classic undergraduate text acquaints students with fundamental concepts and methods of mathematics. Topics include axiomatic method, set theory, infinite sets, groups, intuitionism, formal systems, mathematical logic, and much more. 1965 second edition.
Author: Ian Stewart,David Tall
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
The transition from school mathematics to university mathematics is seldom straightforward. Students are faced with a disconnect between the algorithmic and informal attitude to mathematics at school, versus a new emphasis on proof, based on logic, and a more abstract development of general concepts, based on set theory. The authors have many years' experience of the potential difficulties involved, through teaching first-year undergraduates and researching the ways in which students and mathematicians think. The book explains the motivation behind abstract foundational material based on students' experiences of school mathematics, and explicitly suggests ways students can make sense of formal ideas. This second edition takes a significant step forward by not only making the transition from intuitive to formal methods, but also by reversing the process- using structure theorems to prove that formal systems have visual and symbolic interpretations that enhance mathematical thinking. This is exemplified by a new chapter on the theory of groups. While the first edition extended counting to infinite cardinal numbers, the second also extends the real numbers rigorously to larger ordered fields. This links intuitive ideas in calculus to the formal epsilon-delta methods of analysis. The approach here is not the conventional one of 'nonstandard analysis', but a simpler, graphically based treatment which makes the notion of an infinitesimal natural and straightforward. This allows a further vision of the wider world of mathematical thinking in which formal definitions and proof lead to amazing new ways of defining, proving, visualising and symbolising mathematics beyond previous expectations.
Author: Frank Plumpton Ramsey
First published in 2000. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Author: Kenneth Kunen
Mathematical logic grew out of philosophical questions regarding the foundations of mathematics, but logic has now outgrown its philosophical roots, and has become an integral part of mathematics in general. This book is designed for students who plan to specialize in logic, as well as for those who are interested in the applications of logic to other areas of mathematics. Used as a text, it could form the basis of a beginning graduate-level course. There are three main chapters: Set Theory, Model Theory, and Recursion Theory. The Set Theory chapter describes the set-theoretic foundations of all of mathematics, based on the ZFC axioms. It also covers technical results about the Axiom of Choice, well-orderings, and the theory of uncountable cardinals. The Model Theory chapter discusses predicate logic and formal proofs, and covers the Completeness, Compactness, and Lowenheim-Skolem Theorems, elementary submodels, model completeness, and applications to algebra. This chapter also continues the foundational issues begun in the set theory chapter. Mathematics can now be viewed as formal proofs from ZFC. Also, model theory leads to models of set theory. This includes a discussion of absoluteness, and an analysis of models such as H( ) and R( ). The Recursion Theory chapter develops some basic facts about computable functions, and uses them to prove a number of results of foundational importance; in particular, Church's theorem on the undecidability of logical consequence, the incompleteness theorems of Godel, and Tarski's theorem on the non-definability of truth.
Author: John P. Mayberry
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This 2001 book will appeal to mathematicians and philosophers interested in the foundations of mathematics.
An Introductory Survey
Author: G. T. Kneebone
Publisher: Dover Publications
Ideal for students intending to specialize in the topic. Part I discusses traditional and symbolic logic. Part II explores the foundations of mathematics. Part III focuses on the philosophy of mathematics.
Author: Ludwig Wittgenstein,R. G. Bosanquet,Cora Diamond
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
For several terms at Cambridge in 1939, Ludwig Wittgenstein lectured on the philosophical foundations of mathematics. A lecture class taught by Wittgenstein, however, hardly resembled a lecture. He sat on a chair in the middle of the room, with some of the class sitting in chairs, some on the floor. He never used notes. He paused frequently, sometimes for several minutes, while he puzzled out a problem. He often asked his listeners questions and reacted to their replies. Many meetings were largely conversation. These lectures were attended by, among others, D. A. T. Gasking, J. N. Findlay, Stephen Toulmin, Alan Turing, G. H. von Wright, R. G. Bosanquet, Norman Malcolm, Rush Rhees, and Yorick Smythies. Notes taken by these last four are the basis for the thirty-one lectures in this book. The lectures covered such topics as the nature of mathematics, the distinctions between mathematical and everyday languages, the truth of mathematical propositions, consistency and contradiction in formal systems, the logicism of Frege and Russell, Platonism, identity, negation, and necessary truth. The mathematical examples used are nearly always elementary.
Author: Thomas Q. Sibley
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Finally there's an easy-to-follow book that will help readers succeed in the art of proving theorems. Sibley not only conveys the spirit of mathematics but also uncovers the skills required to succeed. Key definitions are introduced while readers are encouraged to develop an intuition about these concepts and practice using them in problems. With this approach, they'll gain a strong understanding of the mathematical language as they discover how to apply it in order to find proofs.
Horizons of Truth
Author: Matthias Baaz,Christos H. Papadimitriou,Hilary W. Putnam,Dana S. Scott,Charles L. Harper, Jr
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This volume commemorates the life, work and foundational views of Kurt Gödel (1906–78), most famous for his hallmark works on the completeness of first-order logic, the incompleteness of number theory, and the consistency - with the other widely accepted axioms of set theory - of the axiom of choice and of the generalized continuum hypothesis. It explores current research, advances and ideas for future directions not only in the foundations of mathematics and logic, but also in the fields of computer science, artificial intelligence, physics, cosmology, philosophy, theology and the history of science. The discussion is supplemented by personal reflections from several scholars who knew Gödel personally, providing some interesting insights into his life. By putting his ideas and life's work into the context of current thinking and perceptions, this book will extend the impact of Gödel's fundamental work in mathematics, logic, philosophy and other disciplines for future generations of researchers.
Author: Crispin Wright
In this detailed account, Crispin Wright offers a systematic account of Wittgenstein's later philosophy of mathematics and establishes its links with his later philosophy of language. In line with this, he examines Wittgenstein's Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics.
Author: Mathieu Marion
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Mathieu Marion offers a careful, historically informed study of Wittgenstein's philosophy of mathematics. This area of his work has frequently been undervalued by Wittgenstein specialists and philosophers of mathematics alike; but the surprising fact that he wrote more on this subject than any other indicates its centrality in his thought. Marion traces the development of Wittgenstein's thinking from the 1920s through to the 1950s, in the context of themathematical and philosophical work of the times, to make coherent sense of ideas that have too often been misunderstood because they have been presented in a disjointed and incomplete way. He shows that study of Wittgenstein's writings on mathematics is essential to a proper understanding of his philosophy,and also that it can do much to illuminate current debates about the foundations of mathematics.
Author: Howard Eves
Publisher: Courier Corporation
Third edition of popular undergraduate-level text offers historic overview, readable treatment of mathematics before Euclid, Euclid's Elements, non-Euclidean geometry, algebraic structure, formal axiomatics, sets, more. Problems, some with solutions. Bibliography.
Author: L.A. Harrington,M.D. Morley,A. Šcedrov,S.G. Simpson
This volume discusses various aspects of Harvey Friedman's research in the foundations of mathematics over the past fifteen years. It should appeal to a wide audience of mathematicians, computer scientists, and mathematically oriented philosophers.
Author: J. Barwise
The handbook is divided into four parts: model theory, set theory, recursion theory and proof theory. Each of the four parts begins with a short guide to the chapters that follow. Each chapter is written for non-specialists in the field in question. Mathematicians will find that this book provides them with a unique opportunity to apprise themselves of developments in areas other than their own.
Author: Stephen Pollard
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Moritz Pasch (1843-1930) is justly celebrated as a key figure in the history of axiomatic geometry. Less well known are his contributions to other areas of foundational research. This volume features English translations of 14 papers Pasch published in the decade 1917-1926. In them, Pasch argues that geometry and, more surprisingly, number theory are branches of empirical science; he provides axioms for the combinatorial reasoning essential to Hilbert’s program of consistency proofs; he explores "implicit definition" (a generalization of definition by abstraction) and indicates how this technique yields an "empiricist" reconstruction of set theory; he argues that we cannot fully understand the logical structure of mathematics without clearly distinguishing between decidable and undecidable properties; he offers a rare glimpse into the mind of a master of axiomatics, surveying in detail the thought experiments he employed as he struggled to identify fundamental mathematical principles; and much more. This volume will: Give English speakers access to an important body of work from a turbulent and pivotal period in the history of mathematics, help us look beyond the familiar triad of formalism, intuitionism, and logicism, show how deeply we can see with the help of a guide determined to present fundamental mathematical ideas in ways that match our human capacities, will be of interest to graduate students and researchers in logic and the foundations of mathematics.
Author: Paul Carus
Publisher: Cosimo, Inc.
In this brief treatise, Carus traces the roots of his belief in the philosophical basis for mathematics and analyzes that basis after a historical overview of Euclid and his successors. He then examines his base argument and proceeds to a study of different geometrical systems, all pulled together in his epilogue, which examines matter, mathematics, and, ultimately, the nature of God.
A Gentle Introduction
Author: Pavel Pudlák
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The two main themes of this book, logic and complexity, are both essential for understanding the main problems about the foundations of mathematics. Logical Foundations of Mathematics and Computational Complexity covers a broad spectrum of results in logic and set theory that are relevant to the foundations, as well as the results in computational complexity and the interdisciplinary area of proof complexity. The author presents his ideas on how these areas are connected, what are the most fundamental problems and how they should be approached. In particular, he argues that complexity is as important for foundations as are the more traditional concepts of computability and provability. Emphasis is on explaining the essence of concepts and the ideas of proofs, rather than presenting precise formal statements and full proofs. Each section starts with concepts and results easily explained, and gradually proceeds to more difficult ones. The notes after each section present some formal definitions, theorems and proofs. Logical Foundations of Mathematics and Computational Complexity is aimed at graduate students of all fields of mathematics who are interested in logic, complexity and foundations. It will also be of interest for both physicists and philosophers who are curious to learn the basics of logic and complexity theory.