Author: Peter Jackson
The Mongols and the West provides a comprehensive survey of relations between the Catholic West and the Mongol Empire from the first appearance of Chinggis (Genghis) Khan’s armies on Europe’s horizons in 1221 to the battle of Tannenberg in 1410. This book has been designed to provide a synthesis of previous scholarship on relations between the Mongols and the Catholic world as well as to offer new approaches and conclusions on the subject. It considers the tension between Western hopes of the Mongols as allies against growing Muslim powers and the Mongols’ position as conquerors with their own agenda, and evaluates the impact of Mongol-Western contacts on the West’s expanding knowledge of the world. This second edition takes into account the wealth of scholarly literature that has emerged in the years since the previous edition and contains significantly extended chapters on trade and mission. It charts the course of military confrontation and diplomatic relations between the Mongols and the West, and re-examines the commercial opportunities offered to Western merchants by Mongol rule and the failure of Catholic missionaries to convert the Mongols to Christianity. Fully revised and containing a range of maps, genealogical tables and both European and non-European sources throughout, The Mongols and the West is ideal for students of medieval European history and the crusades.
From Conquest to Conversion
Author: Peter Jackson
Publisher: Yale University Press
An epic historical consideration of the Mongol conquest of Western Asia and the spread of Islam during the years of non-Muslim rule The Mongol conquest of the Islamic world began in the early thirteenth century when Genghis Khan and his warriors overran Central Asia and devastated much of Iran. Distinguished historian Peter Jackson offers a fresh and fascinating consideration of the years of infidel Mongol rule in Western Asia, drawing from an impressive array of primary sources as well as modern studies to demonstrate how Islam not only survived the savagery of the conquest, but spread throughout the empire. This unmatched study goes beyond the well-documented Mongol campaigns of massacre and devastation to explore different aspects of an immense imperial event that encompassed what is now Iran, Iraq, Turkey, and Afghanistan, as well as Central Asia and parts of eastern Europe. It examines in depth the cultural consequences for the incorporated Islamic lands, the Muslim experience of Mongol sovereignty, and the conquerors’ eventual conversion to Islam.
The Mongol Invasion of Europe
Author: James Chambers
Based on a weath of contemporary sources, The devil's horsemen examines the origins and consequences of the Mongol invasion of Europe. It decribes the tactics and training of the first army the world has ever seen, and tells the story of Subedei Bahadur, the illiterate military genius who brought twentieth warfare to medieval Europe.
His Journey to the Court of the Great Khan Möngke, 1253–1255
Author: Peter Jackson
Prior to the 13th century the horizons of Western Christians extended no further than the principalities of what is now European Russia and the Islamic powers of the near East. Beyond lay a world of which they had only the haziest impressions. The belief that Christian communities were to be found here was nurtured in the 12th century by the growth of the legend of Prester John; but otherwise Asia was peopled in the Western imagination by monstrous races borrowed from the works of late Antiquity. The rise of the Mongol empire, however, and the Mongol devastation of Hungary and Poland in 1241-2, brought the West into much closer contact with Inner Asia. Embassies were being exchanged with the Mongols from 1245; Italian merchants began to profit from the commercial opportunities offered by the union of much of Asia under a single power; and the newly emerging orders of preaching friars, the Franciscans and the Dominicans, who had been active in Eastern Europe and in the Islamic world since the 1220s, found their field of operations greatly expanded. The Franciscan William of Rubruck, who travelled through the Mongol empire in 1253-55, composed the earliest report of such a missionary journey that has come down to us. Couched in the form of a long letter to the French king Louis IX, this remarkable document constitutes an extremely valuable source on the Mongols during the era of their greatness. Rubruck was also the first Westerner to make contact with Buddhism, to describe the shamanistic practices by which the Mongols and other steppe peoples set such store, and to make detailed observations on the Nestorian Christian church and its rites. His remarks on geography, ethnography and fauna (notably the ovis poli, which he encountered a generation before the more celebrated Venetian adventurer from whom it takes its scientific name) give him an additional claim to be one of the keenest of medieval European observers to have travelled in Asia. This new annotated translation is designed to supersede that of W.W. Rockhill, published by the Society in 1900, by relating Rubruck's testimony to the wealth of material on Mongol Asia that has become accessible in other sources over the past nine decades.
The World Order Since 1500
Author: Jeremy Black
This timely book provides a general overview of Great Power politics and world order from 1500 to the present. Jeremy Black provides several historical case-studies, each of which throws light on both the power in question and the international system of the period, and how it had developed from the preceding period. The point of departure for this book is Paul Kennedy’s 1988 masterpiece, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. That iconic book, with its enviable mastery of the sources and its skilful integration of political, military and economic history, was a great success when it appeared and has justifiably remained important since. Written during the Cold War, however, Kennedy’s study was very much of its time in its consideration of the great powers in ‘Western’ terms, and its emphasis on economics. This book brings together strategic studies, international relations, military history and geopolitics to answer some of the contemporary questions left open by Professor Kennedy's great work, and also looks to the future of great power relations and of US hegemony. Great Powers and the Quest for Hegemony will be of great interest to students of international relations, strategic studies and international history.
Author: Adam Knobler
In this work, Adam Knobler demonstrates the intimate connection between medieval mythologies of the non-Western world, and early modern European imperial expansion to Africa, Asia and the Americas.
Author: Bayarsaikhan Dashdondog
Covering more than one century, this book describes the complex issues of Mongol-Armenian political relations that involved many different ethnic groups in a vast geographical area stretching from China to the Mediterranean coast in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.
Author: Michael Burgan
Publisher: Infobase Publishing
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
Presents empire's history from its beginnings in the thirteenth century A.D., including its expansion and eventual decline, and provides details on daily life, culture, religion, art, language, literature, industries, and trade.
Author: Christopher Pratt Atwood
Publisher: Facts on File
A comprehensive reference to Mongolia and the Mongols includes alphabetically arranged entries on the region's history, political movements, key figures, culture, languages, religion, economy, sociology, medicine, and climate .
Author: Peter B. Golden
Publisher: Oxford University Press
A vast region stretching roughly from the Volga River to Manchuria and the northern Chinese borderlands, Central Asia has been called the "pivot of history," a land where nomadic invaders and Silk Road traders changed the destinies of states that ringed its borders, including pre-modern Europe, the Middle East, and China. In Central Asia in World History, Peter B. Golden provides an engaging account of this important region, ranging from prehistory to the present, focusing largely on the unique melting pot of cultures that this region has produced over millennia. Golden describes the traders who braved the heat and cold along caravan routes to link East Asia and Europe; the Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan and his successors, the largest contiguous land empire in history; the invention of gunpowder, which allowed the great sedentary empires to overcome the horse-based nomads; the power struggles of Russia and China, and later Russia and Britain, for control of the area. Finally, he discusses the region today, a key area that neighbors such geopolitical hot spots as Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and China.
Author: Brian Todd Carey
Publisher: Pen and Sword
Warfare in the Medieval World explores how civilizations and cultures made war on the battlefields of the Near East and Europe in the period between the fall of Rome and the introduction of reliable gunpowder weapons during the Thirty Years War. Through an exploration of thirty-three selected battles, military historian Brian Todd Carey surveys the changing tactical relationships between the four weapon systems-heavy and light infantry and heavy and light cavalry - focusing on the evolution of shock and missile combat. This is the second part of an ambitious two-volume study of the subject. The first volume, Warfare in the Ancient World, examined the evolution of warfare from the Bronze Age to the highly organized armies of the Greeks and the Romans.
Power and the Politics of Difference
Author: Jane Burbank,Frederick Cooper
Publisher: Princeton University Press
This book "departs from conventional European and nation-centered perspectives to take a remarkable look at how empires relied on diversity to shape the global order. Beginning with ancient Rome and China and continuing across Asia, Europe, the Americas, and Africa," the authors "examine empires' conquests, rivalries, and strategies of domination, emphasizing how empires accommodated, created, and manipulated differences among populations."--Jacket.
Author: Paul D. Buell
Publisher: Scarecrow Press
The A to Z of the Mongol World Empire examines the history of the Mongol Empire, the pre-imperial era of Mongolian history that preceded it, and the various Mongol successor states that continued to dominate Eurasia long after the breakdown of Mongol unity.
An Illustrated History of Their Impact
Author: Kelly DeVries,Robert Douglas Smith
This fascinating reference covers the weapons and armor used by warriors from the 4th to the 15th century and discusses how and why they changed over time. * Narrative chapters follow the development of medieval weapons and armor in four periods: early medieval (376–750), Carolingian (750–1050), the Crusades (1050–1300), and late medieval (1300–1550) * The chronological reference section features vivid illustrations of representative swords, bows, cudgels, shields, and increasingly more sophisticated armor
Author: Ferdinand Joseph Maria Feldbrugge
Much of what we know about the colourful Russian middle ages comes from legal sources: the treaties of Russian-Scandinavian warlords with the Byzantine emperors, the gradual penetration of Christianity and Byzantine institutions, the endless game of war and peace among the numerous regional princes, the activities of Hanseatic merchants in the wealthy city-republic of Novgorod, the curious relationships between the Mongol conquerors and Russian rulers and church dignitaries, etc. And, at the even further fringes of medieval Europe, there were the Christian kingdoms of Armenia and Georgia, squeezed between the Islamic empires of Iran and Turkey, but each possessing their elaborate and original legal systems. A discussion of more general questions of legal history and legal anthropology precedes the treatment of these various topics.
Author: Anatoly Fomenko
Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
The small nomad tribe of Mongols did not know till XX century how great a power they were once. Nor did Mongols know who Great Ghengis Khan was and how he has conquered Eurasia, Russia, China, the whole works. Back in 1879 Mr. Prejevalsky, colonel of Russian cavalry made two major discoveries Gobi Desert, i.e. in Mongolia: for the first, a small wild undomesticated horse, for the second, a case of collective amnesia of the Mongols people. who ignored how great a power they were once.Nobody in the nomad tribe called Mongols couldn't either read, no write and did not know till colonel told them so, how great a world power they were once. Nor did Mongols know who the character Great Ghengis Khan was and how he has conquered Eurasia, Russia, China, the whole works. Actually, in old Russian language � horde � means army. Consequently, the Mongolian Horde was merely the ancient Russian army. According to the official version of history, Russia remained under the political and military yoke of the Mongols for many centuries on end. The term "Mongol" is usually assumed to have always meant the same thing - however, this turns out to be incorrect; the modern interpretation is of a relatively recent origin. Bear in mind that Mongolia didn't exist as an independent state until the revolution of 1917 in Russia! The word "Mongol" comes from Russian 'mnogo' simply meaning 'a lot, "numerous" or "Great One" - its association with the nomadic tribes hailing from the steppes north of China is a later invention. But why did it have to be invented?The reason is simple: the actual "Mongol conquerors of Russia" never existed. The yoke theory was created by the court German historians of the new Russian dynasty, the Romanovs. The Mongol yoke theory has served the end of justifying the Romanovs' claims for the throne and demonizing their longtime adversaries - the Horde, or the professional Russian army, which remained fiercely loyal to the old Russian dynasty, deposed and finally destroyed by the Romanovs as a result of a conspiracy. The savage invaders and torturers of the Russian land that we read about in history textbooks were the protectors of the state in reality - and ethnic Slavs for the most part. Small wonder historians still cannot find a single trace of the mythical Mongol capital - no such capital ever existed anywhere near the Gobi Desert.
A Eurocentric Perspective
Author: Neville Brown
History and Climate Change is a balanced and comprehensive overview of the links between climate and man's advance from early to modern times. It draws upon demographic, economic, urban, religious and military perspectives. It is a synthesis of the many historical and scientific theories, which have arisen regarding man's progress through the ages. Central to the book is the question of whether climate variation is a fundamental trigger mechanism from which other historical sequences develop, or one amongst a number of other factors, decisive only when a regime/society is poised for change. Evidence for prolonged climate change is not that extensive. But it is clear that climatic variation has regularly played a part in historical development. Paricular attention is here paid to Europe since AD 211. Cold and warmth, wetness and aridity can create contrary reactions within societies, which can be interpreted in vary different ways by scholars from differenct disciplines. Does climate change exacerbate famine and epidemics? Did climate fluctuation play a part in pivotal historical events such as the mass exodus of Hsuing-nu from China, the pressure of the Huns on the Romans and the genesis of the Crusades? Did the bitter Finnish winter of 1939-40 ensure the ultimate defeat of Hitler? These episodes, and many others are discussed throughout the book in the authors distinctive style, with maps and photographs to illustrate the examples given.
Author: Jim Bradbury
This comprehensive volume provides easily-accessible factual material on all major areas of warfare in the medieval west. The whole geographical area of medieval Europe, including eastern Europe, is covered, including essential elements from outside Europe such as Byzantine warfare, nomadic horde invasions and the Crusades. Progressing chronologically, the work is presented in themed, illustrated sections, with a narrative outline offering a brief introduction to the area. Within each chronological section, Jim Bradbury presents clear and informative pieces on battles, sieges, and generals. The author examines practical topics including: castle architecture, with examinations of specific castles ship building techniques improvements in armour specific weapons developments in areas such as arms and armour, fortifications, tactics and supply. Readable and engaging, this detailed provides students with an excellent collection of archaeological information and clear discussions of controversial issues.
Technology and Invention in the Middle Ages
Author: Frances Gies,Joseph Gies
Publisher: Harper Collins
An illuminating look at the monumental inventions of the Middle Ages, by the authors of Life in a Medieval Castle.
Author: George Lane
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
Discusses daily life in the Mongol empire, examining such topics as housing, clothing, food, medicine, religion, law, and folk tales.