Economics, Security, and Governance

Author: Benjamin K. Sovacool,Scott Victor Valentine

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415688701

Category: History

Page: 292

View: 6997

This book offers a comprehensive assessment of the dynamics driving, and constraining, nuclear power development in Asia, Europe, and North America, providing detailed comparative analysis. Starting with a close examination of the evolution of nuclear energy in the United States, this work formulates a socio-political economy theory which highlights the six factors necessary for embarking on nuclear power programs: (1) strong state involvement in guiding economic growth, (2) centralization of national energy planning, (3) campaigns to link technological progress to a national revitalization, (4) influence of technocratic ideology on policy decisions, (5) subordination of opposition to political authority, and (6) low levels of civic activism. The authors verify the causal properties of these six catalysts for nuclear power expansion in France as well as the four Asian countries attempting to embrace it—China, India, Japan, and South Korea -- and contrast these examples with three comparatively democratic countries where nuclear power development has staggered: Canada, the former Soviet Union, and the USA. They conclude by discussing what this theory of nuclear socio-political economy means for developed and developing countries (such as Australia, Indonesia or Vietnam) which exhibit the potential for nuclear development on a major scale. This book will be of interest to students of energy policy and security, nuclear proliferation, international security, global governance and IR in general.
Read More

Author: Xu Yi-chong

Publisher: Palgrave MacMillan

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 235

View: 8590

Introduction From Bomb to Power Expanding the Nuclear Energy Program Who Decides? The Politics of Nuclear Energy Who Pays? The Economics of Nuclear Energy Technology Adoption or Technology Innovation Fuelling the Future: the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Who Cares? The Public and the Environment Is Nuclear the Future?
Read More

A History of the Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant

Author: D.P. McCaffrey

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401133328

Category: Political Science

Page: 269

View: 6274

Several individuals noted the potentially important civilian uses of atomic energy shortly after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. That year J. Robert Oppenheimer told a national radio audience that "in the near future" it would be possible to generate profitable electric power from "controlled nuclear chain reaction units" (reactors). It was suggested that, after fIfteen to twenty-five years of development, mature nuclear technology could provide virtually inexhaustible, cheap energy given the abundance of nuclear fuel. Admiral Lewis Strauss, the Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, stated that atomic power would generate electricity "too cheap to meter" (A statement that, according to Brookhaven National Laboratories' physicist Herbert Kouts, immediately "caused consternation among his technical advisors" [Kouts, 1983: 3)). For a brief period it was thought that airplanes would fly using atomic power, and homes would install small nuclear reactors for heat and hot water. 1950s and early 1960s a small number of prototype nuclear In the reactors came on line in the United States. The first power plant protoype reactor began operation in Shippingport, Pennsylvania in 1957. It was followed by the Dresden 1 unit near Chicago in 1959, the Yankee plant in Rowe, Massachusetts (1960), and the Indian Point (New York) and Big Rock Point (Michigan) plants in 1%2. These five plants had a combined 800 megawatts (800 MW), or less than one generating capacity ofless than percent of the total American electricity generating capacity in 1962.
Read More

Politische Veränderungsprozesse in Deutschland und den USA

Author: David Knollmann

Publisher: Nomos Verlag

ISBN: 3845291958

Category: Political Science

Page: 473

View: 6857

Die Studie analysiert ein häufig übersehenes Politikversagen: In den USA und der BRD scheiterte die Kernenergiepolitik schon früh an ihren selbst gesteckten Zielen. Noch vor den jeweils relevanten AKW-Unfällen in Harrisburg und Tschernobyl kam die Technikexpansion in beiden Ländern zum Halt. Die Längsschnittanalyse untersucht die Evolution der Kernenergiepolitiken zwischen 1945 und 2016 und zeigt, wie in beiden Fällen ein politisch eingerichtetes Regime zerfiel, das institutionell auf Förderung und Schutz der Kerntechnik ausgerichtet war. Die theoretische Basis für die Untersuchung liefert die sogenannte Punctuated Equilibrium Theory, die eine Vorstellung davon vermittelt, nach welchem Muster sich politische Veränderungsprozesse vollziehen. Die Arbeit thematisiert Stärken und Schwächen der Theorie und bietet zudem einen historisch informierten Blick auf jüngere Entwicklung wie die "Nuclear Renaissance" in den USA sowie den deutschen Atomausstieg.
Read More

Framing the Discourse: Actors, Positions and Dynamics

Author: Pamela M. Barnes

Publisher: Verlag Barbara Budrich

ISBN: 3847406876

Category: Political Science

Page: 292

View: 4366

For the foreseeable future, the overall use of nuclear electricity in the European Union is unlikely to change significantly despite the controversies surrounding its use among the EU's nation states. Pamela M. Barnes questions the role that nuclear electricity plays in meeting the challenges of providing secure, competitive, and sustainable energy to support the development of the low carbon economy in the EU. Analysis presented focuses on the evolution of the discourse on nuclear energy among policy makers at European and national levels as well as the public.
Read More

Impacts and Implications

Author: D. Elliott

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137274336

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 145

View: 831

The Fukushima nuclear disaster in March 2011 led Japan, and many other countries, to change their energy policies. David Elliott reviews the disaster and its global implications, asking whether, despite continued backing by some governments, the growing opposition to nuclear power means the end of the global nuclear renaissance.
Read More

Concepts from International Relations and Other Disciplines

Author: Maximilian Mayer,Mariana Carpes,Ruth Knoblich

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 364255007X

Category: Political Science

Page: 282

View: 6689

An increasing number of scholars have begun to see science and technology as relevant issues in International Relations (IR), acknowledging the impact of material elements, technical instruments, and scientific practices on international security, statehood, and global governance. This two-volume collection brings the debate about science and technology to the center of International Relations. It shows how integrating science and technology translates into novel analytical frameworks, conceptual approaches and empirical puzzles, and thereby offers a state-of-the-art review of various methodological and theoretical ways in which sciences and technologies matter for the study of international affairs and world politics. The authors not only offer a set of practical examples of research frameworks for experts and students alike, but also propose a conceptual space for interdisciplinary learning in order to improve our understanding of the global politics of science and technology. This first volume summarizes various time-tested approaches for studying the global politics of science and technology from an IR perspective. It also provides empirical, theoretical, and conceptual interventions from geography, history, innovation studies, and science and technology studies that indicate ways to enhance and rearticulate IR approaches. In addition, several interviews advance possibilities of multi-disciplinary collaboration.
Read More

A Comparison of Germany and the United States

Author: Christian Joppke

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520912526

Category: History

Page: 324

View: 4123

In the past two decades young people, environmentalists, church activists, leftists, and others have mobilized against nuclear energy. Anti-nuclear protest has been especially widespread and vocal in Western Europe and the United States. In this lucid, richly documented book, Christian Joppke compares the rise and fall of these protest movements in Germany and the United States, illuminating the relationship between national political structures and collective action. He analyzes existing approaches to the study of social movements and suggests an insightful new paradigm for research in this area. Joppke proposes a political process perspective that focuses on the interrelationship between the state and social movements, a model that takes into account a variety of forces, including differential state structures, political cultures, movement organizations, and temporal and contextual factors. This is an invaluable work for anyone studying the dynamics of social movements around the world.
Read More

Pergamon Policy Studies on Energy

Author: E. William Colglazier

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483154246

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 290

View: 3624

The Politics of Nuclear Waste covers several issues concerning nuclear waste, such as management, disposal, and its impact on politics. Consisting of eight chapters, the book covers several aspects of the politics of nuclear waste. The opening chapter discusses nuclear waste management in the United States, while the next chapter reviews a cross national perspective on the politics of nuclear waste. Chapter 3 talks about congressional and executive branch factions in nuclear waste management policy, while Chapter 4 discusses federal-state conflict in nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 tackles consultation and concurrence, and Chapter 6 deals with public participation. Chapter seven aims to answer “When does consultation become co-optation? and “When does information become propaganda? The last chapter discusses prospects for consensus. This book will be of great interest to those concerned with the implication of nuclear waste management for the political climate.
Read More

Normalisation and Acceptance after the Cold War

Author: Andrew Futter

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136655379

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 4523

This book examines the transformation in US thinking about the role of Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) in national security policy since the end of the Cold War. The evolution of the BMD debate after the Cold War has been complex, complicated and punctuated. As this book shows, the debate and subsequent policy choices would often appear to reflect neither the particular requirements of the international system for US security at any given time, nor indeed the current capabilities of BMD technology. Ballistic Missile Defence and US National Security Policy traces the evolution of policy from the zero-sum debates that surrounded the Strategic Defense Initiative as Ronald Reagan left office, up to the relative political consensus that exists around a limited BMD deployment in 2012. The book shows how and why policy evolved in such a complex manner during this period, and explains the strategic reasoning and political pressures shaping BMD policy under each of the presidents who have held office since 1989. Ultimately, this volume demonstrates how relative advancements in technology, combined with growth in the perceived missile threat, gradually shifted the contours and rhythm of the domestic missile defence debate in the US towards acceptance and normalisation. This book will be of much interest to students of missile defence and arms control, US national security policy, strategic studies and international relations in general.
Read More

The Politics of Nuclear and Solar Power in the United States

Author: George A. Gonzalez

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 1438442955

Category: History

Page: 168

View: 1955

What set the United States on the path to developing commercial nuclear energy in the 1950s, and what led to the seeming demise of that industry in the late 1970s? Why, in spite of the depletion of fossil fuels and the obvious dangers of global warming, has the United States moved so slowly toward adopting alternatives? In Energy and Empire, George A. Gonzalez presents a clear and concise argument demonstrating that economic elites tied their advocacy of the nuclear energy option to post-1945 American foreign policy goals. At the same time, these elites opposed government support for other forms of energy, such as solar, that cannot be dominated by one nation. While researchers have blamed safety concerns and other factors as helping to arrest the expansion of domestic nuclear power plant construction, Gonzalez points to an entirely different set of motivations stemming from the loss of America’s domination/control of the enrichment of nuclear fuel. Once foreign countries could enrich their own fuel, civilian nuclear power ceased to be a lever the United States could use to economically/politically dominate other nations. Instead, it became a major concern relating to nuclear weapons proliferation.
Read More

Author: Behram N. Kursunogammalu,Stephan L. Mintz,Arnold Perlmutter

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0585342881

Category: Science

Page: 238

View: 6680

The 1995 conference was organized around two closely related themes and focused on the two pivotal aspects of energy, that is, economics and politics, both of which are decisive in providing long-term national and international strategies for the next century. Originally the program was going to include the participants from the new oil powers in Central Asia and Caucasus, newly independent from the former U.S.S.R. However, probably both economics and politics prevented their participation. Global energy projections, technological changes such as nuclear power and the fuel geopolitics of the coming century will be the basis for political and strategic planning. Based on the scenarios of likely global economic and population growth and of new energy technologies, what are foreseeable scenarios for the geopolitics of energy a half century ahead? What fresh worldwide systems should we start now? The political problems with profound economic impact could include, for example, the significance of the continuing worldwide growth of nuclear power, with such issues as the use of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and Plutonium obtained from the dismantling of U.S. and former U.S.S.R. nuclear weapons; the urgency of nonproliferation; the disposal of civilian and military nuclear waste; and, nuclear power alternatives. In spite of U.S. reluctance, the increasing role of nuclear power is becoming apparent in several countries, and its potential has become an important political factor today.
Read More

Author: Dr Bhumitra Chakma

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409476413

Category: Political Science

Page: 278

View: 3176

An important and critical re-evaluation of South Asia's post-tests nuclear politics, in contrast to other books, this volume emphasises the political dimension of South Asia's nuclear weapons, explains how the bombs are used as politico-strategic assets rather than pure battlefield weapons and how India and Pakistan utilise them for politico-strategic purposes in an extremely complex and competitive South Asian strategic landscape. Written by a group of perceptive observers of South Asia, this volume evaluates the current state of Indo-Pakistani nuclear deterrents, the challenges that the two countries confront in building their nuclear forces, the post-test nuclear doctrines of the two strategic rivals, the implications of Indo-Pakistani politics for regional cooperation, the role of two systemic actors (USA and China) in the region's nuclear politics and the critical issues of confidence-building and nuclear arms control.
Read More

Japanese Case Studies on Science, Technology and Society

Author: Yuko Fujigaki

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319153536

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 242

View: 6944

This book is about the consequences of the Fukushima disaster in light of their technological, societal, political, cultural and environmental origins. The magnitude of the nuclear accident is investigated in this book in the contexts of politics, economy, and society. The authors scrutinize the relationships between science, technology and society leading to this accident. Further, the authors reveal how these relationships were constructed historically. This book provides a case analysis on the Fukushima disaster in political, societal, economic and cultural dimensions. In addition, analyses for historically grown relationships between different societal spheres mouthing into disasters are presented using examples of the Minamata disease (Mercury pollution), Itai-Itai Disease (Cadmium pollution), BSE, and GMOs. With this book, Yuko Fujigaki achieves to connect local and cultural peculiarities with generalized scientific information and practices in a coherent, logical fashion to a comprehensive volume on a very actual topic of global significance. In light of a globally increasing energy gap, this book has a distinct global relevance, providing an honest account on different triggers mouthing into the nuclear disaster. This book not only gives a scientific account. It also can also contribute to prevent future disasters starting from similar vectors.
Read More

The Political Outcomes of Social Movements

Author: Felix Kolb

Publisher: Campus Verlag

ISBN: 3593384132

Category: Social Science

Page: 329

View: 2013

Although grass-roots social movements are an important force of social and political change, they quite often fail to achieve their lofty goals. Similarly, the inability of research to systematically explain the impact of such movements stands in sharp contrast to their emotional appeal. Protest, Opportunities, and Mechanisms attempts to rejuvenate current scholarship by developing a comprehensive theory of social movements and political change. In addition to reviewing the existing literature on the political outcomes of social movements, this volume analyzes the examples of the American civil rights movement and anti-nuclear energy efforts in eighteen countries to forge a new understanding of their momentous impact.
Read More

The Politics of 21st Century Policy

Author: Walter A. Rosenbaum

Publisher: CQ Press

ISBN: 1483321029

Category: Political Science

Page: 232

View: 8756

There are rapid, and sometimes radical, changes now transforming energy production and consumption in the United States. Utilizing contemporary examples throughout his narrative, Walter A. Rosenbaum captures this transformation in American Energy: The Politics of 21st Century Policy while analyzing how important actors, institutions, and issues impact American energy policymaking. With clear explanations of relevant energy technologies—from controversial fracking to mountain top mining to nuclear waste storage—the book first looks at the policy options available in governing the energy economy and then discusses specific resources (petroleum and natural gas, coal, nuclear power, electricity, renewable energy, conservation) and the global energy challenges associated with climate change. This is a perfect supplement for any environmental politics course.
Read More

Anti-nuclear Activism and National Identity in Russia, Lithuania, and Ukraine

Author: Jane I. Dawson

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 9780822318378

Category: History

Page: 221

View: 7871

Eco-nationalism examines the spectacular rise of the anti-nuclear power movement in the former Soviet Union during the early perestroika period, its unexpected successes in the late 1980s, and its substantial decline after 1991. Jane I. Dawson argues that anti-nuclear activism, one of the most dynamic social forces to emerge during these years, was primarily a surrogate for an ever-present nationalism and a means of demanding greater local self-determination under the Soviet system. Rather than representing strongly held environmental and anti-nuclear convictions, this activism was a political effort that reflected widely held anti-Soviet sentiments and a resentment against Moscow’s domination of the region—an effort that largely disappeared with the dissolution of the USSR. Dawson combines a theoretical framework based on models of social movements with extensive field research to compare the ways in which nationalism, regionalism, and other political demands were incorporated into anti-nuclear movements in Russia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Armenia, Tatarstan, and Crimea. These comparative case studies form the core of the book and trace differences among the various regional movements to the distinctive national identities of groups involved. Reflecting the new opportunities for research that have become available since the late 1980s, these studies draw upon Dawson’s extended on-site observation of local movements through 1995 and her unique access to movement activists and their personal archives. Analyzing and documenting a development with sobering and potentially devastating implications for nuclear power safety in the former USSR and beyond, Eco-nationalism’s examination of social activism in late and postcommunist societies will interest readers concerned with the politics of global environmentalism and the process of democratization in the post-Soviet world.
Read More

Trump im Weißen Haus

Author: Bob Woodward

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3644002738

Category: Political Science

Page: 512

View: 6218

Bob Woodward, die Ikone des investigativen Journalismus in den USA, hat alle amerikanischen Präsidenten aus nächster Nähe beobachtet. Nun nimmt er sich den derzeitigen Präsidenten vor und enthüllt den erschütternden Zustand des Weißen Hauses unter Donald Trump. Woodward beschreibt, wie dieser Präsident Entscheidungen trifft, er berichtet von eskalierenden Debatten im Oval Office und in der Air Force One, dem volatilen Charakter Trumps und dessen Obsessionen und Komplexen. Woodwards Buch ist ein Dokument der Zeitgeschichte: Hunderte Stunden von Interviews mit direkt Beteiligten, Gesprächsprotokolle, Tagebücher, Notizen – auch von Trump selbst – bieten einen dramatischen Einblick in die Machtzentrale der westlichen Welt, in der vor allem eines herrscht: Furcht. Woodward ist das Porträt eines amtierenden amerikanischen Präsidenten gelungen, das es in dieser Genauigkeit noch nicht gegeben hat.
Read More

Energy and Food Security Challenges in the 21st Century

Author: David Steven,Emily O'Brien,Bruce D. Jones

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815725345

Category: Political Science

Page: 365

View: 9553

Since 2008, energy and food markets—those most fundamental to human existence—have remained in turmoil. Resource scarcity has had a much bigger global impact in recent years than has been predicted, with ongoing volatility a sign that the world is only part-way through navigating a treacherous transition in the way it uses resources. Scarcity, and perceptions of scarcity, increase political risks, while geopolitical turmoil exacerbates shortages and complicates the search for solutions. The New Politics of Strategic Resources examines the political dimensions of strategic resource challenges at the domestic and international levels. For better or worse, energy and food markets are shaped by perceptions of national interest and do not behave as traditional market goods. So while markets are an essential part of any response to tighter resource supplies, governments also will play a key role. David Steven, Emily O'Brien, Bruce Jones, and their colleagues discuss what those roles are and what they should be. The architecture for coordinating multilateral responses to these dynamics has fallen short, raising questions about the effective international management of these issues. Politics impede here too, as the major powers must negotiate political and security trade-offs to cooperate on the design of more robust international regimes and mechanisms for resource security and the provision of global public goods. This timely volume includes chapters on major powers (United States, India, China) and key suppliers (Russia, Saudi Arabia). The contributors also address thematic topics, such as the interaction between oil and state fragility; the changing political dynamics of climate change; and the politics of resource subsidies.
Read More