Author: Benzion Netanyahu
Publisher: New York Review of Books
The Spanish Inquisition remains a fearful symbol of state terror. Its principal target was theconversos, descendants of Spanish Jews who had been forced to convert to Christianity some three generations earlier. Since thousands of them confessed to charges of practicing Judaism in secret, historians have long understood the Inquisition as an attempt to suppress the Jews of Spain. In this magisterial reexamination of the origins of the Inquisition, Netanyahu argues for a different view: that the conversos were in fact almost all genuine Christians who were persecuted for political ends. The Inquisition's attacks not only on the conversos' religious beliefs but also on their "impure blood" gave birth to an anti-Semitism based on race that would have terrible consequences for centuries to come. This book has become essential reading and an indispensable reference book for both the interested layman and the scholar of history and religion.
Author: Henry Charles Lea
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
Nachdruck des Originals von 1911.
Essays on Jewish and Converso History in Late Medieval Spain
Author: Benzion Netanyahu
One of the world's foremost scholars in the fields of Spanish and Jewish medieval history, B. Netanyahu revolutionized accepted belief concerning the causes of the Spanish Inquisition in his magisterial volume of 1995, The Origins of the Inquisition. Locating that origin not in the supposed persistence of Judaism among the New Christians but in a concession the kings were forced to make to powerfully anti-Jewish popular sentiment, he radically altered the whole landscape of Hispano-Jewish studies. Toward the Inquisition is another major contribution to this historiographic revolution. Made up of seven of Netanyahu's essays, published over the last two decades and collected here for the first time, it further illuminates Jewish and Marrano history from the mid-fourteenth century to the end of the fifteenth century. The essays throw light on such long-obscured phenomena as the rise of the Nazi-like theory of race which harassed the conversos for three full centuries, or the abandonment of Judaism by most conversos decades before the Inquisition was established.
Author: Mark D. Meyerson
Publisher: Princeton University Press
This book significantly revises the conventional view that the Jewish experience in medieval Spain--over the century before the expulsion of 1492--was one of despair, persecution, and decline. Focusing on the town of Morvedre in the kingdom of Valencia, Mark Meyerson shows how and why Morvedre's Jewish community revived and flourished in the wake of the horrible violence of 1391. Drawing on a wide array of archival documentation, including Spanish Inquisition records, he argues that Morvedre saw a Jewish "renaissance." Meyerson shows how the favorable policies of kings and of town government yielded the Jewish community's demographic expansion and prosperity. Of crucial importance were new measures that ceased the oppressive taxation of the Jews and minimized their role as moneylenders. The results included a reversal of the credit relationship between Jews and Christians, a marked amelioration of Christian attitudes toward Jews, and greater economic diversification on the part of Jews. Representing a major contribution to debates over the Inquisition's origins and the expulsion of the Jews, the book also offers the first extended analysis of Jewish-converso relations at the local level, showing that Morvedre's Jews expressed their piety by assisting Valencia's conversos. Comparing Valencia with other regions of Spain and with the city-states of Renaissance Italy, it makes clear why this kingdom and the town of Morvedre were so ripe for a Jewish revival in the fifteenth century.
Author: W. Sombart
Publisher: Рипол Классик
Zehntes und elftes Tausend.
Exegesis, Literature, Philosophy, and the Arts
Author: Jonathan Decter,Arturo Prats
The articles of this volume present instantiations of the Hebrew Bible’s deployment in textual and visual forms by Iberian Jewish, Christian and converso exegetes, translators, philosophers, artists, and literary authors between the anti-Jewish riots of 1391 and the Expulsion of 1492.
Author: Louis Begley
Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag
Lügen in Zeiten des Krieges erzählt die Geschichte einer Kindheit in Polen. Maciek, Sohn jüdischer Eltern, wächst – in den dreißiger Jahren unseres Jahrhunderts – behütet in einem wohlhabenden Arzthaushalt auf, bis der Herbst 1939 mit einem Schlag das Schicksal seiner Familie verändert. Louis Begley erzählt in seinem ersten Roman die Geschichte unseres Jahrhunderts, eine Geschichte, die hier mit den mal märchenhaft, mal brutal einfachen Worten des jungen Maciek geschildert wird.
Author: Norman Roth
Publisher: Univ of Wisconsin Press
The Jewish community of medieval Spain was the largest and most important in the West for more than a thousand years, participating fully in cultural and political affairs with Muslim and Christian neighbors. This stable situation began to change in the 1390s, and through the next century hundreds of thousands of Jews converted to Christianity. Norman Roth argues here with detailed documentation that, contrary to popular myth, the conversos were sincere converts who hated (and were hated by) the remaining Jewish community. Roth examines in depth the reasons for the Inquisition against the conversos, and the eventual expulsion of all Jews from Spain. “With scrupulous scholarship based on a profound knowledge of the Hebrew, Latin, and Spanish sources, Roth sets out to shatter all existing preconceptions about late medieval society in Spain.”—Henry Kamen, Journal of Ecclesiastical History “Scholarly, detailed, researched, and innovative. . . . As the result of Roth’s writing, we shall need to rethink our knowledge and understanding of this period.”—Murray Levine, Jewish Spectator “The fruit of many years of study, investigation, and reflection, guaranteed by the solid intellectual trajectory of its author, an expert in Jewish studies. . . . A contribution that will be particularly valuable for the study of Spanish medievalism.”—Miguel Angel Motis Dolader, Annuario de Estudios Medievales
Kaufleute zwischen Hamburg und Portugal im 17. Jahrhundert
Author: Jorun Poettering
Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
Welche Bedeutung besaßen Herkunft und Religion eines frühneuzeitlichen Kaufmanns für seinen Handel? Worin unterschied sich die Tätigkeit eines Hansekaufmanns von der eines iberischen oder niederländischen Kaufmanns? Um diese Fragen zu beantworten, vergleicht Jorun Poettering die drei wichtigsten Kaufmannsgruppen, die im 17. Jahrhundert am Handel zwischen Hamburg und Portugal beteiligt waren: die Hamburger, Portugiesen und Niederländer. Sie untersucht die wirtschaftlichen, politischen und rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen von Migration und Fernhandel, betrachtet die geografische und soziale Mobilität der Kaufleute und vergleicht ihre Umsätze, Vermögen und Warenspezialisierungen. Sie beleuchtet ihre Integration in verschiedene Organisationen und die Bedeutung von Familie und religiöser Gemeinschaft für ihren Handel. Die Autorin liefert damit neue Erkenntnisse zur Geschichte von Migration und interkultureller Begegnung im Zuge der frühmodernen Globalisierung.
A History of the Crypto-Jews of New Mexico
Author: Stanley M. Hordes
Publisher: Columbia University Press
In 1981, while working as New Mexico State Historian, Stanley M. Hordes began to hear stories of Hispanos who lit candles on Friday night and abstained from eating pork. Puzzling over the matter, Hordes realized that these practices might very well have been passed down through the centuries from early crypto-Jewish settlers in New Spain. After extensive research and hundreds of interviews, Hordes concluded that there was, in New Mexico and the Southwest, a Sephardic legacy derived from the converso community of Spanish Jews. In To the End of the Earth, Hordes explores the remarkable story of crypto-Jews and the tenuous preservation of Jewish rituals and traditions in Mexico and New Mexico over the past five hundred years. He follows the crypto-Jews from their Jewish origins in medieval Spain and Portugal to their efforts to escape persecution by migrating to the New World and settling in the far reaches of the northern Mexican frontier. Drawing on individual biographies (including those of colonial officials accused of secretly practicing Judaism), family histories, Inquisition records, letters, and other primary sources, Hordes provides a richly detailed account of the economic, social and religious lives of crypto-Jews during the colonial period and after the annexation of New Mexico by the United States in 1846. While the American government offered more religious freedom than had the Spanish colonial rulers, cultural assimilation into Anglo-American society weakened many elements of the crypto-Jewish tradition. Hordes concludes with a discussion of the reemergence of crypto-Jewish culture and the reclamation of Jewish ancestry within the Hispano community in the late twentieth century. He examines the publicity surrounding the rediscovery of the crypto-Jewish community and explores the challenges inherent in a study that attempts to reconstruct the history of a people who tried to leave no documentary record.
An Anthology of Sources
Author: Lu Ann Homza
Publisher: Hackett Publishing
This collection of previously untranslated court documents, testimonials, and letters portrays the Inquisition in vivid detail, offering fresh perspectives on such topics as the Inquisition's persecution of Jews and Muslims, the role of women in Spanish religious culture, the Inquisition's construction and persecution of witchcraft, daily life inside an inquisition prison, and the relationship between the Inquisition and the Spanish Monarchy. Homza's general introduction traces the Inquisition's origins back to the Roman Empire and provides valuable historical, political, and legal context. Headnotes introduce each selection and footnotes identify unfamiliar terms, religious customs, and people.
The Warrior Queen
Author: Kirstin Downey
Category: Biography & Autobiography
An engrossing and revolutionary biography of Isabella of Castile, the controversial Queen of Spain who sponsored Christopher Columbus's journey to the New World, established the Spanish Inquisition, and became one of the most influential female rulers in history Born at a time when Christianity was dying out and the Ottoman Empire was aggressively expanding, Isabella was inspired in her youth by tales of Joan of Arc, a devout young woman who unified her people and led them to victory against foreign invaders. In 1474, when most women were almost powerless, twenty-three-year-old Isabella defied a hostile brother and a mercurial husband to seize control of Castile and León. Her subsequent feats were legendary. She ended a twenty-four-generation struggle between Muslims and Christians, forcing North African invaders back over the Mediterranean Sea. She laid the foundation for a unified Spain. She sponsored Columbus's trip to the Indies and negotiated Spanish control over much of the New World with the help of Rodrigo Borgia, the infamous Pope Alexander VI. She also annihilated all who stood against her by establishing a bloody religious Inquisition that would darken Spain's reputation for centuries. Whether saintly or satanic, no female leader has done more to shape our modern world, in which millions of people in two hemispheres speak Spanish and practice Catholicism. Yet history has all but forgotten Isabella's influence, due to hundreds of years of misreporting that often attributed her accomplishments to Ferdinand, the bold and philandering husband she adored. Using new scholarship, Downey's luminous biography tells the story of this brilliant, fervent, forgotten woman, the faith that propelled her through life, and the land of ancient conflicts and intrigue she brought under her command. From the Hardcover edition.
Yosef Hayim Yerushalmi and the Writing of Jewish History
Author: David N. Myers,Alexander Kaye
Category: Social Science
From his first book, From Spanish Court to Italian Ghetto, to his well-known volume on Jewish memory, Zakhor, to his treatment of Sigmund Freud in Freud's Moses, Yosef Hayim Yerushalmi (1932-2009) earned recognition as perhaps the greatest Jewish historian of his day, whose scholarship blended vast erudition, unfettered creativity, and lyrical beauty. This volume charts his intellectual trajectory by bringing together a mix of classic and lesser-known essays from the whole of his career. The essays in this collection, representative of the range of his writing, acquaint the reader with his research on early modern Spanish Jewry and the experience of crypto-Jews, varied reflections on Jewish history and memory, and Yerushalmi-s enduring interest in the political history of the Jews. Also included are a number of little-known autobiographical recollections, as well as his only published work of fiction.