Looking Upstream

Author: Kathryn Strother Ratcliff

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1509504354

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 5222

This timely book takes seriously the idea of understanding how our social world – and not individual responsibility or the healthcare system – is the primary determinant of our health. Kathryn Strother Ratcliff puts into practice the "upstream" imagery from public health discourse, which locates the causes (and solutions) of health problems within the social environment. Each chapter explains how the policies, politics, and power behind corporate and governmental decisions and actions produce unhealthy circumstances of living – such as poverty, pollution, dangerous working conditions, and unhealthy modes of food production – and demonstrates that putting profit and politics over people is unhealthy and unsustainable. While the book examines how these unhealthy conditions of life generate significant class and ethnic health disparities, the focus is on everyone's health. Arguing that none of us should be placed in health-threatening situations that could have been prevented, Ratcliff's provocative analysis uses social justice and human rights lenses to guide the discussion "upstream," toward possible changes that should produce a healthier world for us all. Using data and ideas from many disciplines, the book provides a synthesis of invaluable information for activists and policymakers, as well as for professionals and students in sociology, public health, and other fields related to health.
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Looking Upstream

Author: Kathryn Strother Ratcliff

Publisher: Polity

ISBN: 9781509504329

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 7977

This timely book takes seriously the idea of understanding how our social world – and not individual responsibility or the healthcare system – is the primary determinant of our health. Kathryn Strother Ratcliff puts into practice the "upstream" imagery from public health discourse, which locates the causes (and solutions) of health problems within the social environment. Each chapter explains how the policies, politics, and power behind corporate and governmental decisions and actions produce unhealthy circumstances of living – such as poverty, pollution, dangerous working conditions, and unhealthy modes of food production – and demonstrates that putting profit and politics over people is unhealthy and unsustainable. While the book examines how these unhealthy conditions of life generate significant class and ethnic health disparities, the focus is on everyone's health. Arguing that none of us should be placed in health-threatening situations that could have been prevented, Ratcliff's provocative analysis uses social justice and human rights lenses to guide the discussion "upstream," toward possible changes that should produce a healthier world for us all. Using data and ideas from many disciplines, the book provides a synthesis of invaluable information for activists and policymakers, as well as for professionals and students in sociology, public health, and other fields related to health.
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Looking Upstream

Author: Kathryn Strother Ratcliff

Publisher: Polity

ISBN: 9781509504312

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 2965

This timely book takes seriously the idea of understanding how our social world ? not individual responsibility nor the health care system ? is the primary determinant of our health. Kathryn Strother Ratcliff puts into practice the ?upstream? imagery from public health discourse, which locates the causes (and solutions) of health problems within the social environment. Each chapter explains how the policies, politics, and power behind corporate and governmental decisions and actions produce unhealthy circumstances of living ? such as poverty, pollution, dangerous working conditions, and unhealthy modes of food production ? and how putting profit and politics over people is unhealthy and unsustainable. While the book examines how these unhealthy conditions of life generate significant class and ethnic health disparities, the focus is everyone?s health. Arguing that none of us should be placed in preventable health-threatening situations, Ratcliff?s provocative analysis uses social justice and human rights lenses to guide the discussion ?upstream? towards possible changes that could produce a healthier world for us all. Using data and ideas from many disciplines, the book provides a synthesis of invaluable information for activists and policy makers, as well as professionals and students in sociology, public health, and other health fields.
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Author: William C. Cockerham

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745680755

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 7345

In this stimulating book, William C. Cockerham, a leading medical sociologist, assesses the evidence that social factors (such as stress, poverty, unhealthy lifestyles, and unpleasant living and work conditions) have direct causal effects on health and many diseases. Noting a new emphasis upon social structure in both theory and multi-level research techniques, the author argues that a paradigm shift has been emerging in 21st-century medical sociology, which looks beyond individual explanations for health and disease. The field has headed toward a fundamentally different orientation, and Cockerham’s work has been at the forefront of these changes. The second edition of his compelling account has been thoroughly revised and updated with further contemporary developments, and also includes an expanded discussion of the relationship between race and health as well as new material on health care reform and social policy. This engaging text will be indispensable reading for all students and scholars of medical sociology, especially those with the courage to confront the possibility that society really does make people sick.
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Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Committee on Educating Health Professionals to Address the Social Determinants of Health

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309392659

Category: Medical

Page: 172

View: 3251

The World Health Organization defines the social determinants of health as “the conditions in which people are born, grow, work, live, and age, and the wider set of forces and systems shaping the conditions of daily life.†These forces and systems include economic policies, development agendas, cultural and social norms, social policies, and political systems. In an era of pronounced human migration, changing demographics, and growing financial gaps between rich and poor, a fundamental understanding of how the conditions and circumstances in which individuals and populations exist affect mental and physical health is imperative. Educating health professionals about the social determinants of health generates awareness among those professionals about the potential root causes of ill health and the importance of addressing them in and with communities, contributing to more effective strategies for improving health and health care for underserved individuals, communities, and populations. Recently, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop to develop a high-level framework for such health professional education. A Framework for Educating Health Professionals to Address the Social Determinants of Health also puts forth a conceptual model for the framework’s use with the goal of helping stakeholder groups envision ways in which organizations, education, and communities can come together to address health inequalities.
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An Interdisciplinary Approach to Social Inequality and Wellbeing

Author: Adrian Bonner

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 1447336844

Category: Medical

Page: 320

View: 4398

Based on the ‘rainbow model’ of the social determinants of health, this book examines the key factors which can lead to poor quality of life, homelessness and reduced mortality.
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Author: Lisa F. Berkman,Ichiro Kawachi,M. Maria Glymour

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199395330

Category: Medical

Page: 615

View: 1814

"Eleven fully updated chapters include entries on the links between health and discrimination, income inequality, social networks and emotion, while four all-new chapters examine the role of policies in shaping health, including how to translate evidence into action with multi-level interventions."
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The Challenge of an Unequal World

Author: Michael Marmot

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1408857987

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 400

View: 2579

There are dramatic differences in health between countries and within countries. But this is not a simple matter of rich and poor. A poor man in Glasgow is rich compared to the average Indian, but the Glaswegian's life expectancy is 8 years shorter. The Indian is dying of infectious disease linked to his poverty; the Glaswegian of violent death, suicide, heart disease linked to a rich country's version of disadvantage. In all countries, people at relative social disadvantage suffer health disadvantage, dramatically so. Within countries, the higher the social status of individuals the better is their health. These health inequalities defy usual explanations. Conventional approaches to improving health have emphasised access to technical solutions – improved medical care, sanitation, and control of disease vectors; or behaviours – smoking, drinking – obesity, linked to diabetes, heart disease and cancer. These approaches only go so far. Creating the conditions for people to lead flourishing lives, and thus empowering individuals and communities, is key to reduction of health inequalities. In addition to the scale of material success, your position in the social hierarchy also directly affects your health, the higher you are on the social scale, the longer you will live and the better your health will be. As people change rank, so their health risk changes. What makes these health inequalities unjust is that evidence from round the world shows we know what to do to make them smaller. This new evidence is compelling. It has the potential to change radically the way we think about health, and indeed society.
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Author: Elizabeth Tobin-Tyler,Joel B. Teitelbaum

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

ISBN: 128416960X

Category: Education

Page: 178

View: 889

Essentials of Health Justice is a short stand-alone text or supplemental primer for a wide range of undergraduate and graduate public health, health policy, medical, nursing, health administration, and other health profession courses that focus on or include content on the social determinants of health, underserved populations, health equity, and the relationship between social justice and health. Essentials of Health Justice will serve to enhance discussion of the many legal, structural and policy issues underlying health disparities; the various public health and health care interventions geared toward improving access and better outcomes for vulnerable populations; and the ways in which the nation can better achieve health equity and justice.
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A Comparative Approach

Author: Alan Davidson

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199005406

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 336

View: 1434

Focused on population health rather than individual well-being, this text takes a macro-level look at the social, economic, and political elements that influence public health in Western countries such as Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia.
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From Concept to Practice

Author: Erik Blas,Johannes Sommerfeld,Anand Sivasankara Kurup

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9789241564137

Category: Medical

Page: 209

View: 8833

The thirteen case studies contained in this publication were commissioned by the research node of the Knowledge Network on Priority Public Health Conditions (PPHC-KN), a WHO-based interdepartmental working group associated with the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The publication is a joint product of the Department of Ethics, Equity, Trade and Human Rights (ETH), Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP), and Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research (AHPSR). The case studies describe a wealth of experiences with implementing public health programmes that intend to address social determinants and to have a great impact on health equity. They also document the real-life challenges in implementing such programmes, including the challenges in scaling up, managing policy changes, managing intersectoral processes, adjusting design and ensuring sustainability. This publication complements the previous publication by the Department of Ethics, Equity, Trade and Human Rights entitled Equity, social determinants and public health programmes, which analysed social determinants and health equity issues in 13 public health programmes, and identified possible entry points for interventions to address those social determinants and inequities at the levels of socioeconomic context, exposure, vulnerability, health outcomes and health consequences.
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Shorter Lives, Poorer Health

Author: National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Population,Panel on Understanding Cross-National Health Differences Among High-Income Countries

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309264146

Category: Social Science

Page: 420

View: 4880

The United States is among the wealthiest nations in the world, but it is far from the healthiest. Although life expectancy and survival rates in the United States have improved dramatically over the past century, Americans live shorter lives and experience more injuries and illnesses than people in other high-income countries. The U.S. health disadvantage cannot be attributed solely to the adverse health status of racial or ethnic minorities or poor people: even highly advantaged Americans are in worse health than their counterparts in other, "peer" countries. In light of the new and growing evidence about the U.S. health disadvantage, the National Institutes of Health asked the National Research Council (NRC) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to convene a panel of experts to study the issue. The Panel on Understanding Cross-National Health Differences Among High-Income Countries examined whether the U.S. health disadvantage exists across the life span, considered potential explanations, and assessed the larger implications of the findings. U.S. Health in International Perspective presents detailed evidence on the issue, explores the possible explanations for the shorter and less healthy lives of Americans than those of people in comparable countries, and recommends actions by both government and nongovernment agencies and organizations to address the U.S. health disadvantage.
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New Conversations across the Disciplines

Author: Mara Buchbinder,Michele Rivkin-Fish,Rebecca L. Walker

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469630362

Category: Medical

Page: 350

View: 6710

The need for informed analyses of health policy is now greater than ever. The twelve essays in this volume show that public debates routinely bypass complex ethical, sociocultural, historical, and political questions about how we should address ideals of justice and equality in health care. Integrating perspectives from the humanities, social sciences, medicine, and public health, this volume illuminates the relationships between justice and health inequalities to enrich debates. Understanding Health Inequalities and Justice explores three questions: How do scholars approach relations between health inequalities and ideals of justice? When do justice considerations inform solutions to health inequalities, and how do specific health inequalities affect perceptions of injustice? And how can diverse scholarly approaches contribute to better health policy? From addressing patient agency in an inequitable health care environment to examining how scholars of social justice and health care amass evidence, this volume promotes a richer understanding of health and justice and how to achieve both. The contributors are Judith C. Barker, Paula Braveman, Paul Brodwin, Jami Suki Chang, Debra DeBruin, Leslie A. Dubbin, Sarah Horton, Carla C. Keirns, J. Paul Kelleher, Nicholas B. King, Eva Feder Kittay, Joan Liaschenko, Anne Drapkin Lyerly, Mary Faith Marshall, Carolyn Moxley Rouse, Jennifer Prah Ruger, and Janet K. Shim.
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Author: Erik Blas,Anand Sivasankara Kurup,World Health Organization

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9241563974

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 291

View: 6524

This book is a collection of analyses of the social determinants of health that impact on specific health conditions. Stemming from the recommendations of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health, promising interventions to improve health equity are presented for the areas of: alcohol-related disorders, cardiovascular diseases, child health and nutrition, diabetes, food safety, maternal health, mental health, neglected tropical diseases, oral health, pregnancy outcomes, tobacco and health, tuberculosis, and violence and injuries. The book was commissioned by the Department of Ethics, Equity, Trade and Human Rights as part of the work undertaken by the Priority Public Health Conditions Knowledge Network of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health, in collaboration with 16 of the major public health programmes of WHO. In addition to this, through collaboration with the Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, and the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, 13 case studies were commissioned to examine the implementation challenges in addressing social determinants of health in low-and middle-income settings.
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An Introduction to Concepts, Theories and Methods

Author: Mel Bartley

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745691137

Category: Social Science

Page: 264

View: 9150

At a time when social inequalities are increasing at an alarming rate, this new edition of Mel Bartleyï¿1⁄2s popular book is a vital resource for understanding the extent of health inequalities and why they are proving to be persistent despite decades of growing knowledge and policies on the issue. As in the first edition, by examining influences of social class, income, culture and wealth as well as gender, ethnicity and other factors in identity, this accessible book provides a key to understanding the major theories and explanations of what lies behind inequality in health. Bartley re-situates the classic behavioural, psycho-social, and material approaches within a life-course perspective. Evaluating the evidence of health outcomes over time and at local and national levels, Bartley argues that individual social integration demands closer attention if health inequality is to be tackled effectively, revealing the important part that identity plays in relation to the chances of a long and healthy life. Health Inequality will be essential reading for students taking courses in the sociology of health and illness, social policy and welfare, health sciences, public health and epidemiology and all those interested in understanding the consequences of social inequality for health.
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Pathways to Health Equity

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice,Committee on Community-Based Solutions to Promote Health Equity in the United States

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309452961

Category: Medical

Page: 582

View: 1843

In the United States, some populations suffer from far greater disparities in health than others. Those disparities are caused not only by fundamental differences in health status across segments of the population, but also because of inequities in factors that impact health status, so-called determinants of health. Only part of an individual’s health status depends on his or her behavior and choice; community-wide problems like poverty, unemployment, poor education, inadequate housing, poor public transportation, interpersonal violence, and decaying neighborhoods also contribute to health inequities, as well as the historic and ongoing interplay of structures, policies, and norms that shape lives. When these factors are not optimal in a community, it does not mean they are intractable: such inequities can be mitigated by social policies that can shape health in powerful ways. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity seeks to delineate the causes of and the solutions to health inequities in the United States. This report focuses on what communities can do to promote health equity, what actions are needed by the many and varied stakeholders that are part of communities or support them, as well as the root causes and structural barriers that need to be overcome.
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Why Spending More is Getting Us Less

Author: Elizabeth H. Bradley,Lauren A. Taylor

Publisher: PublicAffairs

ISBN: 1610392108

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 8142

Foreword by Harvey V. Fineberg, President of the Institute of Medicine For decades, experts have puzzled over why the US spends more on health care but suffers poorer outcomes than other industrialized nations. Now Elizabeth H. Bradley and Lauren A. Taylor marshal extensive research, including a comparative study of health care data from thirty countries, and get to the root of this paradox: We've left out of our tally the most impactful expenditures countries make to improve the health of their populations-investments in social services. In The American Health Care Paradox, Bradley and Taylor illuminate how narrow definitions of "health care," archaic divisions in the distribution of health and social services, and our allergy to government programs combine to create needless suffering in individual lives, even as health care spending continues to soar. They show us how and why the US health care "system" developed as it did; examine the constraints on, and possibilities for, reform; and profile inspiring new initiatives from around the world. Offering a unique and clarifying perspective on the problems the Affordable Care Act won't solve, this book also points a new way forward.
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Canadian Perspectives

Author: Dennis Raphael

Publisher: Canadian Scholars’ Press

ISBN: 1551308975

Category: Social Science

Page: 648

View: 934

In the current environment of deepening class and income inequality, it is essential to understand the socio-economic conditions that shape the health of individuals and communities. Now in its third edition, Dennis Raphael’s Social Determinants of Health offers a comprehensive discussion of the primary factors that influence the health of Canada’s population. This seminal text on the social determinants of health contains contributions from top academics and high-profile experts from across the country. Taking a public policy approach, the authors in this edited collection critically analyze the structural inequalities embedded in our society and the socio-economic factors that affect health, including income, education, employment, housing, food security, gender, and race. The thorough updates to this edition include a greater focus on the political mechanisms that explain the distribution of the social determinants of health and additional material on public policy, early childhood education in Canada, and the determinants of Indigenous peoples’ health. Rich in pedagogical tools including critical thinking questions and lists of recommended readings and online resources, this book will actively engage students and researchers alike.
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Doctors for a Healthy Society

Author: Andrew Bresnahan,Mahli Brindamour,Christopher Charles,Ryan Meili

Publisher: UBC Press

ISBN: 1895830885

Category: Medical

Page: N.A

View: 4270

When patients visit a clinic or hospital, they bring stories of the everyday life conditions that made them sick in the first place – stories about where they work, live, and play; stories about income, food security, and housing. Doctors today are listening. Personal stories and patient encounters illuminate the social determinants of health, that is, the upstream source of what too often become complex, painful, and expensive downstream problems. Upstream Medicine features interviews by medical students and residents with leading physicians whose practices bring evidence-based, upstream ideas to life. They show how we can change the practice of medicine to build a healthier society.
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Author: Larry R. Churchill

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195300833

Category: Medical

Page: 395

View: 3881

This book takes the conversation between bioethics and health policy to a new level. Moving beyond principles and normative frameworks, bioethicists writing in the volume consider the actual policy problems faced by health care systems, while policy-makers reflect on the moral values inherent in both the process and content of health policy. The result is a vigorous dialogue with some of the nation's leading experts at the interface of ethics and health policy. the book provides a history of the values implicit in U.S. health policy, a discussion of the federal and state roles in policy making, an ethical examination of the social goals expressed through various policies, an analysis of the role of public opinion in the creation of health policy, and an exploration of the value of the private sector in health policy. In addition, the authors examine some of the major ethical controversies in health policy, such as the challenge of balancing ethical concerns with economic realities, the need to allocate scarce health resources, the call for heightened accountability, and the impact of various policies on vulnerable populations. The book concludes with an examination of the ethical issues in health services research, including the threats to privacy that arise in such research. To a greater extent than any previous volume, it establishes a strong connection between the disciplines of medical ethics and health policy.
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