Author: Dr Geza Alfoldy
This study, first published in German in 1975, addresses the need for a comprehensive account of Roman social history in a single volume. Specifically, Alföldy attempts to answer three questions: What is the meaning of Roman social history? What is entailed in Roman social history? How is it to be conceived as history? Alföldy’s approach brings social structure much closer to political development, following the changes in social institutions in parallel with the broader political milieu. He deals with specific problems in seven periods: Archaic Rome, the Republic down to the Second Punic War, the structural change of the second century BC, the end of the Republic, the Early Empire, the crisis of the third century AD and the Late Empire. Excellent bibliographical notes specify the most important works on each subject, making it useful to the graduate student and scholar as well as to the advanced and well-informed undergraduate.
Author: John K. Evans
J.K. Evans’ pioneering work explores the profound changes in the social, economic and legal condition of Roman women, which, it is argued, were necessary consequences of two centuries of near-continuous warfare as Rome expanded from city-state to empire. Bridging the gap that has isolated the specialised studies of Roman women and children from the more traditional political and social concerns of historians, J.K. Evans’ investigation ranges from Cicero’s wife Terentia to the anonymous spouse of the peasant-soldier Ligustinus, charting the severe erosion of the very institutions that kept women and children in thrall. War, Women and Children in Ancient Rome will be of interest not only to classicists and historians of antiquity but also to sociologists and anthropologists, while it will similarly prove an indispensable reference work for historians of women and the family.
A History of the Middle Danube Provinces of the Roman Empire
Author: András Mócsy
In Pannonia and Upper Moesia, first published 1974, András Mócsy surveys the Middle Danube Provinces from the latest pre-Roman Iron Age up to the beginning of the Great Migrations. His primary concern is to develop a general synthesis of the archaeological and historical researches in the Danube Basin, which lead to a more detailed knowledge of the Roman culture of the area. The economic and social development, town and country life, culture and religion in the Provinces are all investigated, and the local background of the so-called Illyrian Predominance during the third century crisis of the Roman Empire is explained, as is the eventual breakdown of Danubian Romanisation. This volume will appeal to students and teachers of archaeology alike, as well as to those interested in the Roman Empire – not only the history of Rome itself, but also of the far-flung areas which together comprised the Empire’s frontier for centuries.
Author: Suzanne Dixon
The Roman Mother, first published in 1988, traces the traditional Roman attitude towards mothers to its republican origins, examining the diverse roles and the relative power and influence associated with motherhood. The importance of the paterfamilias with his wide-ranging legal rights and obligations is familiar, but much less attention has been devoted to the equally interesting position and duties of mothers and the particular limitations on their actions. The author considers the legal position of the mother, the status of the widow and her testamentary position; the official promotion of parenthood by Augustan legislation; and the duties of mother to sons and daughters and vice versa, as they altered throughout the children’s lives. Literary stereotypes of ideal senatorial mothers and of wicked step-mothers also have their part to play in interpreting the Roman view of motherhood, and the influence of such values on the course of Roman history.
Author: Thomas Wiedemann
There is little evidence to enable us to reconstruct what it felt like to be a child in the Roman world. We do, however, have ample evidence about the feelings and expectations that adults had for children over the centuries between the end of the Roman republic and late antiquity. Thomas Wiedemann draws on this evidence to describe a range of attitudes towards children in the classical period, identifying three areas where greater individuality was assigned to children: through political office-holding; through education; and, for Christians, through membership of the Church in baptism. These developments in both pagan and Christian practices reflect wider social changes in the Roman world during the first four centuries of the Christian era. Of obvious value to classicists, Adults and Children in the Roman Empire, first published in 1989, is also indispensable for anthropologists, and well as those interested in ecclesiastical and social history.
Author: Missimo Pallottino
In A History of Earliest Italy, first published in 1984, Professor Pallottino illumines the wide variety of peoples, languages, and traditions of culture and trade that constituted the pre-Roman Italic world. Since the written sources are fragmentary, archaeology provides the central reservoir for evidence of the societies and institutions of the varied peoples of early Italy. This incisive and immensely readable account unfolds from the Bronze Age to the unification of the Italian peninsula and Sicily by Rome following the flourishing Archaic period. It examines the relationships among the peoples of the peninsula and the influence of Mycenae and Greece in trade and colonisation. In telling the story of the early stages of the eternal dialogue between national vocation and local diversity in Italy, Professor Pallottino demonstrates that it is no less deserving of our attention than its contemporary Greek and later imperial Roman counterparts.
From Marius to Domitian
Author: Ernest Weinrib
The Spaniards in Rome: From Marius to Domitian, first published in 1990, examines the expansion and revitalisation of the Roman aristocracy in the later Republic and early Empire, focusing specifically on the political careers of men from the provinces of the Iberian Peninsula. The indigenous peoples of Spain were renowned in antiquity for the steadfastness of their personal loyalties. Clientela, the specifically Roman practice of official patronage, was a prize worth striving for by a Roman aristocrat in the Iberian Peninsula, and propelled many men of property into the political life of the capitol. Against the general background of an increasingly influential Spanish presence in Rome, Professor Weinrib provides an intensive examination of aristocratic retrenchment during the most turbulent decades of the first century BC and the consolidation of the empire. Detailed investigation of sources and elaborate argumentation are combined to illuminate that process with special reference to prominent Spanish personalities.
From the Invasions to the XVI Century
Author: Henri Pirenne
First published in 1939, this is a reissue of Henri Pirenne's extremely popular and influential history of Europe in the Middle Ages. It begins with the Barbarian and Musulman invasions in the fifth century AD, which signalled the end of the Roman world in the West, and ends in the middle of the sixteenth century with the Renaissance and the Reformation. Universally praised for its detailed and impartial approach, this reissue will be very welcome news to both students of medieval history and to the general reader seeking a definitive review of the period.
Author: M.I. Finley
Originally published in 1978, this volume comprises articles previously published in the historical journal, Past and Present, ranging over nearly a thousand years of Graeco-Roman history. The essays focus primarily on the Roman Empire, reflecting the increase, in British scholarship of the post-war years, of explanatory, ‘structuralist’ studies of this period in Roman history. The topics treated include Athenian politics, the Roman conquest of the east, violence in the later Roman Republic, the second Sophistic, and persecutions of the early Christians. The authors have all produced original studies, a number of which have generated significant research by other ancient historians.
Author: Lloyd A. Thompson
Roman literature seems to provide plenty of instances of contempt towards foreign or black individuals, but it is an untenable assumption that such distaste amounts to a racist attitude, particularly considering how elusive the definitions of 'race' and 'racism' are. Making extensive use of developments in sociological theory and psychology, Romans and Blacks, first published in 1989, presents an innovative and illuminating picture of black-white relations in Roman society. It is argued that 'race' as a somatic identification that entails permanent and genetically transmitted social disabilities was absent, and that the main deference-entitling distinctions in the Roman world were socio-cultural rather than somatic. Therefore, Professor Thompson concludes, references to black skins and negroid features should be interpreted in aesthetic terms. This wide-ranging study brings welcome clarity to the discussion of blacks in the Roman world, and is valuable for all students of race relations as well as classicists and historians.
Author: Arnold Hauser
Category: Social Science
First published in 1982, The Sociology of Art considers all forms of the arts, whether visual arts, literature, film, theatre or music from Bach to the Beatles. The last book to be completed by Arnold Hauser before his death in 1978, it is a total analysis of the spiritual forces of social expression, based upon comprehensive historical experience and documentation. Hauser explores art through the earliest times to the modern era, with fascinating analyses of the mass media and current manifestations of human creativity. An extension and completion of his earlier work, The Social History of Art, this volume represents a summing up of his thought and forms a fitting climax to his life’s work. Translated by Kenneth J. Northcote.
Conquest and Assimilation
Author: Leonard A. Curchin
The rugged, parched landscape and fierce inhabitants of the Iberian Peninsula resisted Rome’s best generals for two centuries. Roman Spain tells the story of this conquest, making use of the latest archaeological evidence to explore the social, religious, political and economic implications of the transition from a tribal community accustomed to grisly human sacrifices to a civilised, Latin-speaking provincial society. From the fabled kingdom of Tartesos to the triumph of Christianity, Professor Curchin traces the evolution of Hispano-Roman cults, the integration of Spain into the Roman economy, cultural ‘resistance’ to Romanisation, and surveys the chief cities of the Roman administration as well as conditions in the countryside. Special emphasis is placed on social relationships: soldier and civilian, the emperor and the provincials, patrons and clients, the upper and lower classes, women and the family.
A Sourcebook on Roman History, 31 BC-AD 68
Author: David Braund
The years from the battle of Actium to the death of Nero stand at the very heart of Roman history. Yet the sources of this key period, particularly the inscriptions, papyri and coins, are not readily accessible. Crucial new discoveries remain buried in learned periodicals, and now that the study of the ancient world is widespread among those without Latin and Greek, the lack of translations is proving a serious handicap. Augustus to Nero, first published in 1985, contains numerous texts not only for students of traditional political history, but also of those interested in social and economic history. An introductory essay establishes a broad methodological framework within which each text may be understood. The focus throughout is on less well-known literary evidence: for example, the significant poetry of Crinagoras and Calpurnius Siculus. Inaccessible sources are here collected and translated: brief notes are supplied to help the reader.
A Study in Christian Origins
Author: Karl Kautsky
First published in 1925, Karl Kautsky presents a Marxist history of Christianity and Christian society. Divided into four key sections, the book begins by considering the personality of Jesus as portrayed within Pagan and Christian sources and highlighting the Church’s difficulty in presenting a unified and concurrent image of Jesus and interpretation of His words. Next, Kautsky analyses the structure of Roman society, with particular emphasis on the slave-holding system, the Roman State and the historiography of the period. In the third section, an early history of the Jewish people is presented, whilst the final section discusses the beginnings of Christianity and the social struggles present within early Christian society. This is a fascinating reissue, which will be of particular interest to students of Church History, Christian theology and the various interpretations of Jesus.
Medieval Italy (2004): An Encyclopedia -
Author: Christopher Kleinhenz
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
First published in 2004, Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia provides an introduction to the many and diverse facets of Italian civilization from the late Roman empire to the end of the fourteenth century. It presents in two volumes articles on a wide range of topics including history, literature, art, music, urban development, commerce and economics, social and political institutions, religion and hagiography, philosophy and science. This illustrated, A-Z reference is a cross-disciplinary resource and will be of key interest not only to students and scholars of history but also to those studying a range of subjects, as well as the general reader.
Author: Oscar Browning
An Introduction to the History of Educational Theories, first published in 1881, offers a comprehensive overview of the most notable approaches to education throughout Western history, from Athens and Rome to the Victorian public school. Exploring not only the still famous theories of Plato and Aristotle, this work also touches on techniques in education which are either no longer prevalent – Roman Oratory, the Jesuits – or in some cases were never widely adopted or appreciated: John Milton, for example. This title will be of value to those intrigued by the potential of past attitudes for present-day application, as well as to those unconvinced by contemporary approaches.
Author: J. W. Binns
Category: Literary Criticism
This volume, offering an insight into the literary world of Rome in the fourth century AD, reflects an increased interest in the writers of the 150 years before the collapse of the Western Empire, who have long been over-shadowed by the pre-eminence accorded since the eighteenth century to the Golden and Silver ages. Among the writers examined are Ausonius, the poet, Imperial official and tutor to Gratian; Claudian, the last major ‘classical’ poet; Prudentius, and Paulinus of Nola, two of the founders of Christian Latin poetry; Symmachus, the letter writer and supporter of die-hard paganism; and St. Augustine, whose influence on Christian thought and the Middle Ages is incalculable. These essays consider how such writers responded to a world where vitality was ebbing from the old forms of political life, religion and literature, giving way to new institutions, modes of life and horizons of reflection.
Biography and Belles Lettres in the Third Century A.D.
Author: Graham Anderson
Category: Foreign Language Study
This study of Philostratus , first published in 1986, presents the Greek biographer’s treatment of both sophists and holy men in the social and intellectual life of the early Roman Empire, which also displays his own distinctive literary personality as a superficial dilettante and an engrossing snob. Through him we gain a glimpse of the rhetorical schools and their rivalries, as well as a bizarre portrayal of the celebrated first-century holy man Apollonius of Tyana, long loathed by his later Christian press as a Pagan Christ. Rarely does a biographer’s reputation revolve round the charge that he forged his principal source. Graham Anderson’s account produces new evidence which supports Philostratus’ credibility, but it also extends the charges of ignorance and bias in his handling of fellow-sophists. Philostratus is intended for any reader interested in the social, cultural and literary history of the Roman Empire as well as the professional classicist.
Author: John Leach
To Romans of later generations the three decades between the dictatorships of Sulla and of Caesar were the age of Pompey the Great. In spite of the central role he played in Roman history, he remains a shadowy figure compared with the likes of Caesar and Cicero. Pompey the Great, first published in 1978, traces the career of this enigmatic character from his first appearance in public life on the staff of his father Strabo during the Social War, through his early military campaigns as Sulla’s lieutenant in the Civil War 83-82, as the Senate’s general in Italy and Spain during the 70s, to his first consulship with Crassus in 70. The important commands against the pirates and Mithridates, the alliance with Caesar, its eventual collapse into civil war, and the significance of Pompey’s constitutional position for an understanding of the later Augustan settlement war are all discussed with clarity and insight.
The Social Context of Literacy (1986)
Author: Kenneth Levine,Taylor & Francis Group
First published in 1986, this book looks at the impact of mass literacy on everyday life, discussing the fundamental differences between traditional oral cultures and contemporary industrialised societies where most people rely on complex combinations of oral and literate communication. There is also a detailed examination of the problems of the sub-literate minority with recommendations for future programmes of assistance. This book also provides a historical survey of the spread of literacy in British society from the Roman occupation onwards. In conclusion, the author discusses the impact of information technologies on people with limited basic skills.