Views from History

Author: Michael B. Katz

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691188548

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 4472

Do ominous reports of an emerging "underclass" reveal an unprecedented crisis in American society? Or are social commentators simply rediscovering the tragedy of recurring urban poverty, as they seem to do every few decades? Although social scientists and members of the public make frequent assumptions about these questions, they have little information about the crucial differences between past and present. By providing a badly needed historical context, these essays reframe today's "underclass" debate. Realizing that labels of "social pathology" echo fruitless distinctions between the "deserving" and "undeserving" poor, the contributors focus not on individual and family behavior but on a complex set of processes that have been at work over a long period, degrading the inner cities and, inevitably, the nation as a whole. How do individuals among the urban poor manage to survive? How have they created a dissident "infrapolitics?" How have social relations within the urban ghettos changed? What has been the effect of industrial restructuring on poverty? Besides exploring these questions, the contributors discuss the influence of African traditions on the family patterns of African Americans, the origins of institutions that serve the urban poor, the reasons for the crisis in urban education, the achievements and limits of the War on Poverty, and the role of income transfers, earnings, and the contributions of family members in overcoming poverty. The message of the essays is clear: Americans will flourish or fail together.
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Changing Perceptions of the Poor in America

Author: William A. Kelso

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814749003

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 397

The much-heralded War on Poverty has failed. The number of children living in poverty is steadily on the rise and an increasingly destructive underclass brutalizes urban neighborhoods. America's patience with the poor seems to have run out: even cities that have traditionally been havens for the homeless are arresting, harassing, and expelling their street people. In this timely work, William Kelso analyzes how the persistence of poverty has resulted in a reversal of liberal and conservative positions during the last thirty years. While liberals in the 1960s hoped to eliminate the causes of poverty, today they increasingly seem resigned to merely treating its effects. The original liberal objective of giving the poor a helping hand by promoting equal opportunity has given way to a new agenda of entitlements and equal results. In contrast, conservatives who once suggested that trying to eliminate poverty was futile, now seek ways to eradicate the actual causes of poverty. Poverty and the Underclass suggests that the arguments of both the left and right are misguided and offers new explanations for the persistence of poverty. Looking beyond the codewords that have come to obscure the debate—underclass, family values, the culture of poverty,—Kelso emphasizes that poverty is not a monolithic condition, but a vast and multidimensional problem. During his Presidential campaign, Bill Clinton called for an overhaul of the welfare system and spoke of a new covenant to unite both the left and right in developing a common agenda for fighting poverty. In this urgent, landmark work, William Kelso merges conservative, radical, and liberal ideals to suggest how the intractable problem of poverty may be solved at long last by implementing the principles of this new covenant.
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A Reader

Author: Enzo Mingione

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470712651

Category: Social Science

Page: 448

View: 3429

Over the last two decades "poverty" has moved centrestage as an issue within the social sciences. This volume, edited by one of Europe's foremost sociologists, aims to assess the debates surrounding poverty and the responses to it, exploring the ways in which the various socio-political systems and welfarist regimes are being radically transformed. The essays examine how such change is effected by failing welfare programmes and enervating social structures such as family and community which once would have provided mechanisms of social stability. The first part of the book provides reflections on urban poverty; the second part discusses the widely debated idea of an "underclass" and its meanings in Europe and in the USA, and the final part draws on concrete empirical analyses to examine the patterns of poverty thoughout Western Europe. This volume will be of first-rate importance to all serious students of politics, sociology, geography, public policy, youth and community studies, social policy and American studies.
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State Policy and Discrimination Against Minorities

Author: George W. Shepherd,David Penna

Publisher: Praeger

ISBN: 9780313278631

Category: Political Science

Page: 180

View: 2602

This unique collection of essays analyzes the impact of state policies on minority communities in the United States and the perpetuation of an underclass in American society. The editors and contributors begin with the premise that there was a resurgence of racism and disadvantage during the Reagan years, not only in the United States, but also in the world. They contend that a major revision of policy toward the American underclass is urgently needed because of a failure to understand underlying social and economic changes. Drawing heavily upon diverse sources for data and theoretical perspectives, the studies in this important volume attempt to integrate underclass analysis with policy formulation. The elaboration of the human rights of the underclass under both international and domestic law is presented by Peter Weiss. Gregory Kellam Scott argues forcefully for a shift in the basis of civil rights jurisprudence that would allow the state to assist the underclass by removing past remnants of discrimination. David Penna and Jose Blas Lorenzo discuss the legality and desirability of state attempts to restrict racist speech, given the exploitative nature of the underclass relationship. John Grove and Jiping Wu reassess the perception of Asian-Americans as a model minority and discuss uncertain prospects for the future integration of new Asian immigrants into mainstream America. Debra Kreisberg Voss, Joy Sobrepena, and Peter W. Van Arsdale demonstrate how the immigration process can marginalize immigrants. George E. Tinker and Loring Bush discuss the difficulties in determining Native American unemployment rates and document the underestimation of the problem and its impact on policy toward Native Americans. The politics and hidden agenda of the English Only movement and the policy implications for linguistic minorities are revealed by Priscilla Falcon and Patricia J. Campbell. Finally, George W. Shepherd, Jr. and David Penna present a challenging agenda for state policy toward the underclass for the 1990s. This provocative volume should be read by everyone interested in ethnic and minority studies.
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The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy, Second Edition

Author: William Julius Wilson

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226924653

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 4353

Renowned American sociologist William Julius Wilson takes a look at the social transformation of inner city ghettos, offering a sharp evaluation of the convergence of race and poverty. Rejecting both conservative and liberal interpretations of life in the inner city, Wilson offers essential information and a number of solutions to policymakers. The Truly Disadvantaged is a wide-ranging examination, looking at the relationship between race, employment, and education from the 1950s onwards, with surprising and provocative findings. This second edition also includes a new afterword from Wilson himself that brings the book up to date and offers fresh insight into its findings. “The Truly Disadvantaged should spur critical thinking in many quarters about the causes and possible remedies for inner city poverty. As policymakers grapple with the problems of an enlarged underclass they—as well as community leaders and all concerned Americans of all races—would be advised to examine Mr. Wilson's incisive analysis.”—Robert Greenstein, New York Times Book Review
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Author: Charles A. Murray

Publisher: American Enterprise Institute

ISBN: 9780844771311

Category: Political Science

Page: 43

View: 9863

This book examines statistics on illegitimacy, criminality, and the dropout rate from the labor force for four checkpoints from 1954 to 1997.
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Author: Robert Macdonald

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134726295

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 240

View: 3631

The idea that Britain, the US and other western societies are witnessing the rise of an underclass of people at the bottom of the social heap, structurally and culturally distinct from traditional patterns of `decent' working-class life, has become increasingly popular in the 1990s. Anti-work, anti-social, and welfare dependent cultures are said to typify this new `dangerous class' and `dangerous youth' are taken as the prime subjects of underclass theories. Debates about the family and single-parenthood, about crime and about unemployment and welfare reforms have all become embroiled in underclass theories which, whilst highly controversial, have had remarkable influence on the politics and policies of governments in Britain and the US. Youth, the 'Underclass' and Social Exclusion constitutes the first concerted attempt to grapple with the underclass idea in relation to contemporary youth. It focuses upon unemployment, training, the labour market, crime, homelessness, and parenting and will be essential reading for students of social policy, sociology and criminology.
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Author: R. Marris

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230373011

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 229

View: 2621

The outstanding moral problem of our time is the emergence of an underclass, provoking both pity and an angry political backlash. Robin Marris finds that a slowdown in growth is the root cause, leading to a collapse of the labour market for unskilled men in particular. Fashionable solutions such as lower wages or welfare reform benefit those already well-off, and exacerbate growing income inequality. He employs statistical, sociological and psychological analysis and new developments in 'brain science' to show how the creation of an open society with increased equality of opportunity risks creating an unnecessarily excessive meritocracy. The solution is restoring national and international priority to the objective of growth. If this fails, damage limitation is essential. We must learn to live with the welfare state.
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Managing the Underclass in American Society

Author: John Irwin

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520957458

Category: Social Science

Page: 176

View: 957

Combining extensive interviews with his own experience as an inmate, John Irwin constructs a powerful and graphic description of the big-city jail. Unlike prisons, which incarcerate convicted felons, jails primarily confine arrested persons not yet charged or convicted of any serious crime. Irwin argues that rather than controlling the disreputable, jail disorients and degrades these people, indoctrinating new recruits to the rabble class. In a forceful conclusion, Irwin addresses the issue of jail reform and the matter of social control demanded by society. Reissued more than twenty years after its initial publication with a new foreword by Jonathon Simon, The Jail remains an extraordinary account of the role jails play in America’s crisis of mass incarceration.
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Author: Michael R. Als

Publisher: N.A


Category: Business & Economics

Page: 239

View: 3604

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Segregation and the Making of the Underclass

Author: Douglas S. Massey,Nancy A. Denton

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674018211

Category: Social Science

Page: 292

View: 6890

This powerful and disturbing book links persistent poverty among blacks in the United States to the unparalleled degree of deliberate segregation they experience in American cities. "A major contribution to our study of both racism and poverty".--Washington Post Book World.
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Author: Christopher Jencks,Paul E. Peterson

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815723462

Category: Social Science

Page: 508

View: 9112

Many believe that the urban underclass in America is a large, rapidly increasing proportion of the population; that crime, teenage pregnancy, and high school dropout rates are escalating; and that welfare rolls are exploding. Yet none of these perceptions is accurate. Here, noted authorities, including William J. Wilson, attempt to separate the truth about poverty, social dislocation, and changes in American family life from the myths that have become part of contemporary folklore.
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The Underclass and Social Citizenship

Author: Lydia Morris

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134943148

Category: Social Science

Page: 184

View: 2476

First published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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The Welfare State, the "Underclass," and Urban Schools as History

Author: Michael B. Katz

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400821709

Category: Social Science

Page: 191

View: 6610

"There are places where history feels irrelevant, and America's inner cities are among them," acknowledges Michael Katz, in expressing the tensions between activism and scholarship. But this major historian of urban poverty realizes that the pain in these cities has its origins in the American past. To understand contemporary poverty, he looks particularly at an old attitude: because many nineteenth-century reformers traced extreme poverty to drink, laziness, and other forms of bad behavior, they tried to use public policy and philanthropy to improve the character of poor people, rather than to attack the structural causes of their misery. Showing how this misdiagnosis has afflicted today's welfare and educational systems, Katz draws on his own experiences to introduce each of four topics--the welfare state, the "underclass" debate, urban school reform, and the strategies of survival used by the urban poor. Uniquely informed by his personal involvement, each chapter also illustrates the interpretive power of history by focusing on a strand of social policy in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: social welfare from the poorhouse era through the New Deal, ideas about urban poverty from the undeserving poor to the "underclass," and the emergence of public education through the radical school reform movement now at work in Chicago. Why have American governments proved unable to redesign a welfare system that will satisfy anyone? Why has public policy proved unable to eradicate poverty and prevent the deterioration of major cities? What strategies have helped poor people survive the poverty endemic to urban history? How did urban schools become unresponsive bureaucracies that fail to educate most of their students? Are there fresh, constructive ways to think about welfare, poverty, and public education? Throughout the book Katz shows how interpretations of the past, grounded in analytic history, can free us of comforting myths and help us to reframe discussions of these great public issues.
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Author: Ken Auletta

Publisher: Overlook Books

ISBN: 9780879519292

Category: Political Science

Page: 416

View: 3928

Originally published as a three-part series in The New Yorker, Ken Auletta's seminal piece of reportage, The Underclass, has been deemed the classic study of poverty in America. Now with the boom years of the Reagan era and its concomitant recession behind us, Auletta revisits his subject, examining whether the "war on poverty" has made any progress in the fifteen years since the book's first publication. In the process, Auletta investigates the epidemic of violent crime that swept America in the late seventies and early eighties, and the reasons why welfare rose even while poverty and unemployment declined. The core of his study follows the diverse efforts of the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, which targets hardened members of the underclass and helps them to reconstruct their lives and return to functional roles in mainstream society. Through the men and women he encounters, Auletta provides insight into the critical issues of "What went wrong -- and right -- with the Great Society?" As pertinent today as it was upon first publication, The Underclass is essential reading for anyone concerned about American society and its social ills.
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Author: Walter Rice

Publisher: Xlibris Corporation

ISBN: 1453553088

Category: History

Page: 72

View: 7650

Trek through a different time and place as author Walter Rice combines poetry and history into one riveting book. Rising with the Underclass and Poems brings you a collection of unforgettable literary pieces. Its last section, the poetry, emancipates the author's innermost emotions and desires that you will be inspired with. History, the other part, captures his sentiments over the events that shaped the world today. Both entertaining and educational, this collection allows you to visit worlds that only you're imagination can take you. Find yourself lost in a captivating flow of melodic words through this anthology today.
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The Sixties ' Legacy to the Underclass (Large Print 16pt)

Author: Myron Magnet


ISBN: 1458761479


Page: 420

View: 9285

Myron Magnet's The Dream and the Nightmare argues that the radical transformation of American culture that took place in the 1960s brought today's underclass - overwhelmingly urban, dismayingly minority - into existence. Lifestyle experimentation among the white middle class produced often catastrophic changes in attitudes toward marriage and parenting, the work ethic and dependency in those at the bottom of the social ladder, and closed down their exits to the middle class. Texas Governor George W. Bush's presidential campaign has highlighted the continuing importance of The Dream and the Nightmare. Bush read the book before his first campaign for governor in 1994, and, when he finally met Magnet in 1998, he acknowledged his debt to this work. Karl Rove, Bush's principal political adviser, cites it as a road map to the governor's philosophy of ''compassionate conservatism.''
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The Developing Debate

Author: Charles Murray

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781903386927


Page: 188

View: 7679

Charles Murray is one of America's most respected social policy analysts. His ideas about the underclass, outlined in his classic Losing Ground, have entered the mainstream of the debate about poverty. Murray's thesis, that the underclass represents not a degree of poverty but a type of poverty, characterised by deviant attitudes towards parenting, work and crime, has been explosively controversial. It has also become more difficult to resist, as the deterioration of the social fabric has become increasingly obvious. British and US situations. In his article, subsequently published by the IEA as The Emerging British Underclass, Murray described himself as a 'visitor from a plague area come to see whether the disease is spreading'. In 1993 he returned to check on its progress, and the resulting article, also for The Sunday Times, was published with commentaries by critics of Murray's thesis, thus presenting the reader with a range of views on the issue. schools and universities, has led to the present omnibus edition which contains all of the original material from both volumes, together with a new introduction by Ruth Lister of Loughborough University and an update of the statistics by Alan Buckingham of the University of Sussex. Community Care.
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