The Art of War in the Modern World

Author: Rupert Smith

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0718196961

Category: Political Science

Page: 448

View: 8442

Why do we try to use military force to solve our political problems? And why, when our forces win the military battles does this still fail to solve those problems? It is because the force lacks utility. From Iraq to the Balkans, and from Afghanistan to Chechneya, over the past fifteen years there has been a steady stream of military interventions that have not delivered on their promise for peace, or even political resolution. The Utility of Force explains this anomaly at the heart of our current international system.
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Author: Rupert Smith

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0307267415

Category: History

Page: 448

View: 5698

From a highly decorated general, a brilliant new way of understanding war and its role in the twenty-first century. Drawing on his vast experience as a commander during the first Gulf War, and in Bosnia, Kosovo, and Northern Ireland, General Rupert Smith gives us a probing analysis of modern war. He demonstrates why today’s conflicts must be understood as intertwined political and military events, and makes clear why the current model of total war has failed in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other recent campaigns. Smith offers a compelling contemporary vision for how to secure our world and the consequences of ignoring the new, shifting face of war. From the Trade Paperback edition.
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Challenges, Methods and Strategy

Author: Isabelle Duyvesteyn,Jan Angstrom

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136969608

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 1882

This book investigates the use and utility of military force in modern war. After the Cold War, Western armed forces have increasingly been called upon to intervene in internal conflicts in the former Third World. These forces have been called upon to carry out missions that they traditionally have not been trained and equipped for, in environments that they often have not been prepared for. A number of these ‘new’ types of operations in allegedly ‘new’ wars stand out, such as peace enforcement, state-building, counter-insurgency, humanitarian aid, and not the least counter-terrorism. The success rate of these missions has, however, been mixed, providing fuel for an increasingly loud debate on the utility of force in modern war. This edited volume poses as its central question: what is in fact the utility of force? Is force useful for anything other than a complete conventional defeat of a regular opponent, who is confronted in the open field? This book will be of much interest to students of strategic studies, war and conflict studies, counter-insurgency, security studies and IR. Isabelle Duyvesteyn is an Associate Professor at the Department of History of International Relations, Utrecht University in the Netherlands. Jan Angstrom is a researcher at the Swedish National Defence College.
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Military Culture and the Political Utility of Force

Author: Ben Buley

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134086415

Category: Political Science

Page: 192

View: 3989

This book explores the cultural history and future prospects of the so-called ‘new American way of war’. In recent decades, American military culture has become increasingly dominated by a vision of ‘immaculate destruction’, which reached its apogee with the fall of Baghdad in 2003. Operation Iraqi Freedom was hailed as the triumphant validation of this new American way of war. For its most enthusiastic supporters, it also encapsulated a broader political vision. By achieving complete technical mastery of the battlefield, the US would render warfare surgical, humane, and predictable, and become a precisely calibrated instrument of national policy. American strategy has often been characterised as lacking in concern for the non-military consequences of actions. However, the chaotic aftermath of the Iraq War revealed the timeless truth that military success and political victory are not the same. In reality, the American way of war has frequently emerged as the contradictory expression of competing visions of war struggling for dominance since the early Cold War period. By tracing the origins and evolution of these competing views on the political utility of force, this book will set the currently popular image of a new American way of war in its broader historical, cultural and political context, and provide an assessment of its future prospects. This book will be of great interest to students of strategic studies, military theory, US foreign policy and international politics. It will be highly relevant for military practitioners interested in the fundamental concepts which continue to drive American strategic thinking in the contemporary battlegrounds of the War on Terror.
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Author: Jim Storr

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1441179372

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 5129

Warfare is hugely important. The fates of nations, and even continents, often� rests on the outcome of war and thus on how its practitioners consider war. The Human Face of War is a new exploration of military thought. It starts with the observation that much military thought is poorly developed - often incoherent and riddled with paradox. The author contends that what is missing from British and American writing on warfare is any underpinning mental approach or philosophy. Why are some tank commanders, snipers, fighter pilots or submarine commanders far more effective than others? Why are many generals sacked at the outbreak of war? The Human Face of War examines such phenomena and seeks to explain them. � The author argues that military thought should be based on an approach which reflects the nature of combat. Combat - fighting - is primarily a human phenomenon dominated by� human behaviour.� The book explores some of those human issues and their practical consequences. The Human Face of War calls for, and suggests, a new way of considering war and warfare.
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Author: Herfried Münkler

Publisher: Polity

ISBN: 0745633366

Category: Political Science

Page: 180

View: 3540

This text explores the changing nature of warfare in the post-Cold War era. It examines the emergence of new forms of warfare in which warlords, mercenaries and terrorists play an increasingly important role.
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Thinking War from Antiquity to the Present

Author: Beatrice Heuser

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 113949256X

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 8946

Is there a 'Western way of war' which pursues battles of annihilation and single-minded military victory? Is warfare on a path to ever greater destructive force? This magisterial account answers these questions by tracing the history of Western thinking about strategy - the employment of military force as a political instrument - from antiquity to the present day. Assessing sources from Vegetius to contemporary America, and with a particular focus on strategy since the Napoleonic Wars, Beatrice Heuser explores the evolution of strategic thought, the social institutions, norms and patterns of behaviour within which it operates, the policies that guide it and the cultures that influence it. Ranging across technology and warfare, total warfare and small wars as well as land, sea, air and nuclear warfare, she demonstrates that warfare and strategic thinking have fluctuated wildly in their aims, intensity, limitations and excesses over the past two millennia.
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Why Insurgencies Win

Author: Jeffrey Record

Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.

ISBN: 1597970905

Category: History

Page: 180

View: 7940

An urgently needed analysis of why great powers lose asymmetrical wars
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Twenty-First Century Combat As Politics

Author: Emile Simpson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019933353X

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 5268

In the wars in Libya, Iraq, Afghanistan and in recent conflicts more generally, liberal powers have blurred the line between military and political activity. 'War From The Ground Up' offers a distinctive perspective in its consideration of the concept of contemporary warfare.
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Contemporary Strategy in Historical Perspective

Author: Hew Strachan

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107047854

Category: History

Page: 338

View: 3494

A major contribution to our understanding of contemporary warfare and strategy by one of the world's leading military historians.
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The Decline of Armed Conflict Worldwide

Author: Joshua S. Goldstein

Publisher: Plume Books

ISBN: 0452298598

Category: History

Page: 385

View: 4987

An award-winning expert on international affairs and military history presents balanced facts about the military-civilian death ratio in modern warfare while explaining how a general decline in armed conflict is revealing the effectiveness of peace, in an account that also outlines illustrative peace-keeping successes and failures.
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U.S. Discrete Military Operations in the Post-Cold War World

Author: Micah Zenko

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804771901

Category: Political Science

Page: 228

View: 1752

In Between Threats and War: U.S. Discrete Military Operations in the Post-Cold War World, author Micah Zenko presents a new concept to capture and illuminate the phenomenon: "Discrete Military Operations."
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The Just War Tradition: Ethics in Modern Warfare

Author: Charles Guthrie,Michael Quinlan

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1408820447

Category: Political Science

Page: 64

View: 2301

Every society and every period of history has had to face the reality of war. War inevitably yields situations in which the normal ethical rules of society have to be overridden. The Just War tradition has evolved over the centuries as a careful endeavour to impose moral discipline and humanity on resort to war and in its waging, and the tradition deserves our attention now as much as ever. Just War traces the origin and nature of the tradition from its roots in Christian thinking and provides a clear summary of its principles, which are accessible to all beliefs. As the circumstances and necessities of war have changed over time, so too have the practical interpretations of the tradition. Drawing examples from Kosovo, Afghanistan and the wars in Iraq, Charles Guthrie and Michael Quinlan look at the key concepts in relation to modern armed conflict. The tradition sets rational limits and respects the adversary's humanity amid the chaos of war, and provides systematic questions which governments and armed forces must ask themselves before they engage in war. This short but powerful book is a timely re-examination of its tenets and their relevance in the twenty-first century, setting out the case for a workable and credible moral framework for modern war before, while and after it is waged.
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Munich, Vietnam, and Presidential Uses of Force from Korea to Kosovo

Author: Jeffrey Record

Publisher: Naval Institute Press

ISBN: 1612515819

Category: History

Page: 216

View: 7039

In examining the influence of historical analogies on decisions to use--or not use--force, military strategist Jeffrey Record assesses every major application of U.S. force from the Korean War to the NATO war on Serbia. Specifically, he looks at the influence of two analogies: the democracies? appeasement of Hitler at Munich and America's defeat in the Vietnam War. His book judges the utility of these two analogies on presidential decision-making and finds considerable misuse of them in situations where force was optional. He points to the Johnson administration's application of the Munich analogy to the circumstances of Southeast Asia in 1965 as the most egregious example of their misuse, but also cites the faulty reasoning by historical analogy that prevailed among critics of Reagan's policy in Central America and in Clinton's use of force in Haiti and the former Yugoslavia. The author's findings show generational experience to be a key influence on presidential decision-making: Munich persuaded mid-twentieth-century presidents that force should be used early and decisively while Vietnam cautioned later presidents against using force at all. Both analogies were at work for the Gulf War, with Munich urging a decision for war and Vietnam warning against a graduated and highly restricted use of force. Record also reminds us of the times when presidents have used analogies to mobilize public support for action they have already decided to take. Addressing both the process of presidential decision-making and the wisdom of decisions made, this well-reasoned book offers timely lessons to a broad audience that includes political scientists, military historians, defense analysts, and policy makers, as well as those simply curious about history's influence.
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Global Trends and the Future of Intervention

Author: Per M. Norheim-Martinsen,Tore Nyhamar

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317593138

Category: History

Page: 258

View: 4572

This book examines the challenges that military forces will face in multinational operations in the 21st century. Expanding on Rupert Smith’s The Utility of Force, the volume assesses the changing parameters within which force as a political instrument is ultimately carried out. By analysing nine carefully selected mission types, the volume presents a comprehensive analysis of key trends and trajectories. Building upon this analysis, the contributors break the trends and parameters down into real and potential tasks and mission types in order to identify concrete implications for military forces in future multinational operations. The context of military intervention in conflicts and crises around the world is rapidly evolving. Western powers’ shrinking ability and desire to intervene makes it pertinent to analyse how the cost of operations can be reduced and, how they can be executed more intelligently in the future. New challenges to international military operations are arising and this book addresses these challenges by focusing on three key areas of change: 1) An increasingly urbanised world; 2) The changing nature of missions; 3) The commercial availability of new technologies. In answering these questions and embracing some of the insights of a growing field of future studies, the volume presents an innovative perspective on future international military operations. This book will be of much interest to students of international intervention, military and strategic studies, war and conflict studies, security studies and IR in general.
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The dynamics of war

Author: Jan Angstrom,J.J. Widen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136169202

Category: History

Page: 206

View: 6439

The book aims to provide the reader with a state-of-the-art introduction to classic and modern military theory. The text accounts for the most important theories within the field by developing and analyzing these theories, as well as problematizing both their normative and explanatory aims. While focusing on military theory, the book does not only reflect a single way of relating to knowledge of war and warfare, but furthers learning by introducing contrasting perspectives as well as constantly criticizing the theories. There is a clear need for an introductory text for the entire field of military theory that focuses whole-heartedly on the theories – not on their context or how they are expressed in practice during war. This book covers such questions as how we should understand the changing character of war, the utility of force and how the pursuit of political ends is achieved through military means. It draws upon and illustrates military thought through a wide-ranging number of examples from the Napoleonic Wars to the current war in Afghanistan. This book will be of great interest for students of military theory, strategic studies, security studies and defence studies.
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Organised Violence in a Global Era

Author: Mary Kaldor

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745663036

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 6546

Mary Kaldor's New and Old Wars has fundamentally changed the way both scholars and policy-makers understand contemporary war and conflict. In the context of globalization, this path-breaking book has shown that what we think of as war - that is to say, war between states in which the aim is to inflict maximum violence - is becoming an anachronism. In its place is a new type of organized violence or 'new wars', which could be described as a mixture of war, organized crime and massive violations of human rights. The actors are both global and local, public and private. The wars are fought for particularistic political goals using tactics of terror and destabilization that are theoretically outlawed by the rules of modern warfare. Kaldor's analysis offers a basis for a cosmopolitan political response to these wars, in which the monopoly of legitimate organized violence is reconstructed on a transnational basis and international peacekeeping is reconceptualized as cosmopolitan law enforcement. This approach also has implications for the reconstruction of civil society, political institutions, and economic and social relations. This third edition has been fully revised and updated. Kaldor has added an afterword answering the critics of the New Wars argument and, in a new chapter, Kaldor shows how old war thinking in Afghanistan and Iraq greatly exacerbated what turned out to be, in many ways, archetypal new wars - characterised by identity politics, a criminalised war economy and civilians as the main victims. Like its predecessors, the third edition of New and Old Wars will be essential reading for students of international relations, politics and conflict studies as well as to all those interested in the changing nature and prospect of warfare.
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Author: Ernie Regehr

Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.

ISBN: 1783603577

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 232

View: 4522

In the past quarter century our world has hosted ninety-nine wars, twenty-nine of these are ongoing. The bill for maintaining huge stores of weapons and some 70 million people in uniform currently stands at $1.7 trillion a year. Of these wars, over 85 percent are not settled on the battlefield; they are fought to desperately hurting stalemates, eventually being turned over to diplomats and politicians who go in search of whatever face-saving outcomes may still be available. And yet, abandoning the conference table in favour of the battlefield is still justified when viewed as a last resort. In this brave and discerning book, Ernie Regehr, OC, explains the approaches and initiatives needed to steer away from the futility of global military effort. Combining four decades of experience in conflict zones, advising and leading diplomacy efforts, building NGOs and contributing to the adoption of the Responsibility to Protect Act by the World Assembly, Regehr boldly shows that political stability will never be issued from the barrel of a gun.
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Freedman on Strategy

Author: Benedict Wilkinson,James Gow

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190851163

Category: History

Page: 504

View: 5105

The Art of Creating Power explores the intellectual thought and wider impact -- on military affairs, politics and the universities -- of Professor Sir Lawrence Freedman, one of the world's leading authorities on strategy, conflict and international politics. In this volume, senior scholars of international relations and military history trace the long trajectory of Freedman's career, examining his scholarly contribution to a whole host of areas from nuclear strategy to US foreign policy via terrorism, the Falklands War, and Iraq. Individually, these essays provide fascinating and innovative insights into strategy, contemporary defence and foreign policy, and conflict. Taken together, however, they are greater than the sum of their parts as they both reflect and explore the theoretical approach adopted and taught by Freedman - one that has made him one of the great intellectual figures in the canon of international politics, strategy and war. Throughout his professional life, Freedman explored many of the uncertainties that plague our highly unstable world. But as conflicts continue to erupt across the globe, it seems we may be entering an even more precarious and uncertain era. There could hardly be a better time than today to gain a deeper understanding of Freedman's strategic insights.
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