Author: N. Bourbaki

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642616933

Category: Mathematics

Page: 301

View: 2262

Each volume of Nicolas Bourbakis well-known work, The Elements of Mathematics, contains a section or chapter devoted to the history of the subject. This book collects together those historical segments with an emphasis on the emergence, development, and interaction of the leading ideas of the mathematical theories presented in the Elements. In particular, the book provides a highly readable account of the evolution of algebra, geometry, infinitesimal calculus, and of the concepts of number and structure, from the Babylonian era through to the 20th century.
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Author: N. Bourbaki

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540225256

Category: Mathematics

Page: 414

View: 6544

This is a softcover reprint of the English translation of 1968 of N. Bourbaki's, Théorie des Ensembles (1970).
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An Introduction to the Theory for Parameter Estimation

Author: S. Silvey

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400959125

Category: Science

Page: 86

View: 8700

Prior to the 1970's a substantial literature had accumulated on the theory of optimal design, particularly of optimal linear regression design. To a certain extent the study of the subject had been piecemeal, different criteria of optimality having been studied separately. Also to a certain extent the topic was regarded as being largely of theoretical interest and as having little value for the practising statistician. However during this decade two significant developments occurred. It was observed that the various different optimality criteria had several mathematical properties in common; and general algorithms for constructing optimal design measures were developed. From the first of these there emerged a general theory of remarkable simplicity and the second at least raised the possibility that the theory would have more practical value. With respect to the second point there does remain a limiting factor as far as designs that are optimal for parameter estimation are concerned, and this is that the theory assumes that the model be collected is known a priori. This of course underlying data to is seldom the case in practice and it often happens that designs which are optimal for parameter estimation allow no possibility of model validation. For this reason the theory of design for parameter estimation may well have to be combined with a theory of model validation before its practical potential is fully realized. Nevertheless discussion in this monograph is limited to the theory of design optimal for parameter estimation.
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Author: Salvatore Esposito

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107044022

Category: Science

Page: 393

View: 4322

Unique volume exploring Majorana's work, for graduate students and researchers interested in the history of science.
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The Extraordinary Life and Mysterious Disappearance of Ettore Majorana, the Troubled Genius of the N

Author: Joao Magueijo

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465020089

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 5895

On the night of March 26, 1938, nuclear physicist Ettore Majorana boarded a ship, cash and passport in hand. He was never seen again. In A Brilliant Darkness, theoretical physicist João Magueijo tells the story of Majorana and his research group, “the Via Panisperna Boys,” who discovered atomic fission in 1934. As Majorana, the most brilliant of the group, began to realize the implications of what they had found, he became increasingly unstable. Did he commit suicide that night in Palermo? Was he kidnapped? Did he stage his own death? A Brilliant Darkness chronicles Majorana's invaluable contributions to science—including his major discovery, the Majorana neutrino—while revealing the truth behind his fascinating and tragic life.
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Sharp and Unsharp Quantum Logics

Author: Maria Luisa Dalla Chiara,Roberto Giuntini,Richard Greechie

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401705267

Category: Mathematics

Page: 298

View: 5334

"Is quantum logic really logic?" This book argues for a positive answer to this question once and for all. There are many quantum logics and their structures are delightfully varied. The most radical aspect of quantum reasoning is reflected in unsharp quantum logics, a special heterodox branch of fuzzy thinking. For the first time, the whole story of Quantum Logic is told; from its beginnings to the most recent logical investigations of various types of quantum phenomena, including quantum computation. Reasoning in Quantum Theory is designed for logicians, yet amenable to advanced graduate students and researchers of other disciplines.
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Author: Salvatore Esposito,Ettore Majorana Jr.,Alwyn van der Merwe,E. Recami

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402016493

Category: Science

Page: 486

View: 2765

HISTORICAL PRELUDE Ettore Majorana's fame solidly rests on testimonies like the following, from the evocative pen of Giuseppe Cocconi. At the request of Edoardo Amaldi, he wrote from CERN (July 18, 1965): "In January 1938, after having just graduated, I was invited, essen tially by you, to come to the Institute of Physics at the University in Rome for six months as a teaching assistant, and once I was there I would have the good fortune of joining Fermi, Bernardini (who had been given a chair at Camerino a few months earlier) and Ageno (he, too, a new graduate), in the research of the products of disintegration of /-L "mesons" (at that time called mesotrons or yukons), which are produced by cosmic rays [ . . . ] "It was actually while I was staying with Fermi in the small laboratory on the second floor, absorbed in our work, with Fermi working with a piece of Wilson's chamber (which would help to reveal mesons at the end of their range) on a lathe and me constructing a jalopy for the illumination of the chamber, using the flash produced by the explosion of an aluminum ribbon short circuited on a battery, that Ettore Majorana came in search of Fermi. I was introduced to him and we exchanged few words. A dark face. And that was it.
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chapters 1-3

Author: Nicolas Bourbaki

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9782705656751

Category: Mathematics

Page: 708

View: 9334

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Chapters 1–5

Author: N. Bourbaki

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642617158

Category: Mathematics

Page: 362

View: 9063

This is a softcover reprint of the 1987 English translation of the second edition of Bourbaki's Espaces Vectoriels Topologiques. Much of the material has been rearranged, rewritten, or replaced by a more up-to-date exposition, and a good deal of new material has been incorporated in this book, reflecting decades of progress in the field.
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Quantum Structures

Author: Kurt Engesser,Dov M. Gabbay,Daniel Lehmann

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080550381

Category: Computers

Page: 818

View: 2454

Since its inception in the famous 1936 paper by Birkhoff and von Neumann entitled “The logic of quantum mechanics quantum logic, i.e. the logical investigation of quantum mechanics, has undergone an enormous development. Various schools of thought and approaches have emerged and there are a variety of technical results. Quantum logic is a heterogeneous field of research ranging from investigations which may be termed logical in the traditional sense to studies focusing on structures which are on the border between algebra and logic. For the latter structures the term quantum structures is appropriate. The chapters of this Handbook, which are authored by the most eminent scholars in the field, constitute a comprehensive presentation of the main schools, approaches and results in the field of quantum logic and quantum structures. Much of the material presented is of recent origin representing the frontier of the subject. The present volume focuses on quantum structures. Among the structures studied extensively in this volume are, just to name a few, Hilbert lattices, D-posets, effect algebras MV algebras, partially ordered Abelian groups and those structures underlying quantum probability. - Written by eminent scholars in the field of logic - A comprehensive presentation of the theory, approaches and results in the field of quantum logic - Volume focuses on quantum structures
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Unveiled Genius and Endless Mysteries

Author: Salvatore Esposito

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319543199

Category: Science

Page: 191

View: 1542

This biography sheds new light on the life and work of physicist Ettore Majorana (including unpublished contributions), as well as on his mysterious disappearance in March 1938. Majorana is held by many, including Nobel Laureate, Enrico Fermi, to have been a genius of the rank of Galilei and Newton. In this intriguing story, the author, himself a leading expert on the work of Majorana, supplements the existing literature with new insights, anecdotes and personal accounts of contemporaries of Majorana.
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Author: Dov M. Gabbay,John Woods

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080549392

Category: Mathematics

Page: 690

View: 7268

The present volume of the Handbook of the History of Logic brings together two of the most important developments in 20th century non-classical logic. These are many-valuedness and non-monotonicity. On the one approach, in deference to vagueness, temporal or quantum indeterminacy or reference-failure, sentences that are classically non-bivalent are allowed as inputs and outputs to consequence relations. Many-valued, dialetheic, fuzzy and quantum logics are, among other things, principled attempts to regulate the flow-through of sentences that are neither true nor false. On the second, or non-monotonic, approach, constraints are placed on inputs (and sometimes on outputs) of a classical consequence relation, with a view to producing a notion of consequence that serves in a more realistic way the requirements of real-life inference. Many-valued logics produce an interesting problem. Non-bivalent inputs produce classically valid consequence statements, for any choice of outputs. A major task of many-valued logics of all stripes is to fashion an appropriately non-classical relation of consequence. The chief preoccupation of non-monotonic (and default) logicians is how to constrain inputs and outputs of the consequence relation. In what is called “left non-monotonicity , it is forbidden to add new sentences to the inputs of true consequence-statements. The restriction takes notice of the fact that new information will sometimes override an antecedently (and reasonably) derived consequence. In what is called “right non-monotonicity , limitations are imposed on outputs of the consequence relation. Most notably, perhaps, is the requirement that the rule of or-introduction not be given free sway on outputs. Also prominent is the effort of paraconsistent logicians, both preservationist and dialetheic, to limit the outputs of inconsistent inputs, which in classical contexts are wholly unconstrained. In some instances, our two themes coincide. Dialetheic logics are a case in point. Dialetheic logics allow certain selected sentences to have, as a third truth value, the classical values of truth and falsity together. So such logics also admit classically inconsistent inputs. A central task is to construct a right non-monotonic consequence relation that allows for these many-valued, and inconsistent, inputs. The Many Valued and Non-Monotonic Turn in Logic is an indispensable research tool for anyone interested in the development of logic, including researchers, graduate and senior undergraduate students in logic, history of logic, mathematics, history of mathematics, computer science, AI, linguistics, cognitive science, argumentation theory, and the history of ideas. Detailed and comprehensive chapters covering the entire range of modal logic. Contains the latest scholarly discoveries and interprative insights that answers many questions in the field of logic.
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Author: Heinrich Päs

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674726197

Category: Science

Page: 312

View: 3726

Almost weightless and able to pass through the densest materials with ease, neutrinos may offer answers to questions ranging from relativity and quantum mechanics to more radical theories about dark energy and supersymmetry. Heinrich Päs serves as our fluent guide to a particle world that tests the boundaries of space, time, and human knowledge.
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Scientific Papers

Author: Giuseppe-Franco Bassani,Società Italiana di Fisica

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540480951

Category: Science

Page: 282

View: 2240

A century after his birth, Ettore Majorana is rightfully considered one of the greatest physicists of the first half of the last century. With this volume the Italian Physical Society presents a collection of Ettore Majorana's scientific papers in the original language and, for the first time -- with three exceptions -- translated into English. Each paper is then followed by a comment in English of an expert in the scientific field.
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Author: A. Esposito,M. Bratanić,E. Keller

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 1607502372

Category: Computers

Page: 372

View: 8457

The main theme of this publication is the fundamental features of verbal and nonverbal communication and their relationships with the identification of a person, his/her socio-cultural background and personal traits. The problem of understanding human behaviour in terms of personal traits, and the possibility of an algorithmic implementation that exploits personal traits to identify a person unambiguously, are among the great challenges of modern science and technology. On the one hand, there is the theoretical question of what makes each individual unique among all others that share similar traits, and what makes a culture unique among various cultures. On the other hand, there is the technological need to be able to protect people from individual disturbance and dangerous behaviour that could damage an entire community. As regards to the problem of understanding human behaviour, one of the most interesting research areas is that related to human interaction and face-to-face communication. It is in this context that knowledge is shared and personal traits acquire their significance.
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Author: H.-D. Ebbinghaus,J. Flum,Wolfgang Thomas

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475723555

Category: Mathematics

Page: 291

View: 5817

This introduction to first-order logic clearly works out the role of first-order logic in the foundations of mathematics, particularly the two basic questions of the range of the axiomatic method and of theorem-proving by machines. It covers several advanced topics not commonly treated in introductory texts, such as Fraïssé's characterization of elementary equivalence, Lindström's theorem on the maximality of first-order logic, and the fundamentals of logic programming.
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Author: M. Averous,M. Balkanski

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461537762

Category: Science

Page: 274

View: 9885

Semimagnetic semiconductors (SMSC) and diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) have in the past decade attracted considerable attention because they confer many new physical properties on both bulk materials and heterostructures. These new effects are due either to exchange interactions between magnetic moments on magnetic ions, or to exchange interactions between magnetic moments and the spin of the charge carrier. These effects vary with the transition metal (Mn, Fe, Co) or rare earth (Eu, Gd, etc) used and thus provide a range of different situations. The field is very large (zero gap, small gap, wide gap), and the magnetic properties also are very rich (paramagnetic spin glass, antiferromagnetism). These materials are very convenient for studying the magnetism (the magnetism is diluted) or the superlattices (SL) with a continuous change from type II SL to type III SL. This Course attempted to provide a complete overview of the topic. The participants of this summer school held in Erice came from ten countries and were from various backgrounds and included theoreticians, experimentalists, physicists, and chemists. Consequently, an attempt was made to make the Course as thorough as possible, but at the same time attention was devoted to basic principles. The lecturers, drawn from all the groups in the world involved in the field, were asked to be very didactic in their presentation. After two introductory lectures, Dr.
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Author: Ray Jayawardhana

Publisher: Oneworld Publications

ISBN: 1780743270

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 6185

Before the Higgs boson, there was a maddening search for another particle – the ghostly neutrino. First detected in 1956, its fleeting appearances have teased answers to many mysteries: How did the Big Bang happen? Why is antimatter so rare? What might dark matter be made of? And could faster-than-light travel be possible, overturning Einstein’s theory of special relativity? But the quest for the neutrino also encompasses adventure, from Cold War defections and extra dimensions to mile-deep holes in the Antarctic ice and a troubled genius who disappeared without a trace. With The Neutrino Hunters, renowned astrophysicist Ray Jayawardhana delivers a thrilling detective story of revolutionary science.
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Selected Erice Lectures

Author: Sidney Coleman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139810960

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 5443

For almost two decades, Sidney Coleman has been giving review lectures on frontier topics in theoretical high-energy physics at the International School of Subnuclear Physics held each year at Erice, Sicily. This volume is a collection of some of the best of these lectures. To this day they have few rivals for clarity of exposition and depth of insight. Although very popular when first published, many of the lectures have been difficult to obtain recently. Graduate students and professionals in high-energy physics will welcome this collection by a master of the field.
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