Stories of a Ritual Murder Trial

Author: R. Po-chia Hsia

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300068726

Category: History

Page: 173

View: 9999

Authorities in Trent to justify their execution of the Jews and to bolster the case for the canonization of "little Martyr Simon." Hsia depicts the Jewish victims (whose testimonies contain fragmentary stories of their tragic lives as well as forced confessions of kidnap, torture, and murder), the prosecuting magistrates, the hostile witnesses, and the few Christian neighbors who tried in vain to help the Jews. Setting the trial and its documents in the historical.
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Stories of a Ritual Murder Trial

Author: R. Po-chia Hsia

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300051069

Category: Religion

Page: 173

View: 6280

"On Easter Sunday, 1475, the dead body of a two-year-old boy named Simon was found in the cellar of a Jewish family's house in Trent, Italy. Town magistrates arrested all eighteen Jewish men and one Jewish woman living in Trent on the charge of ritual murder - the killing of a Christian child in order to use his blood in Jewish religious rites. Under judicial torture and imprisonment, the men confessed and were condemned to death; their women-folk, who had been kept under house arrest with their children, denounced the men under torture and eventually converted to Christianity. A papal hearing in Rome about possible judicial misconduct in Trent made the trial widely known and led to a wave of anti-Jewish propaganda and other accusations of ritual murder against the Jews." "In this engrossing book, R. Pochia Hsia reconstructs the events of this tragic persecution, drawing principally on the Yeshiva Manuscript, a detailed trial record made by authorities in Trent to justify their execution of the Jews and to bolster the case for the canonization of "little Martyr Simon." Hsia depicts the Jewish victims (whose testimonies contain fragmentary stories of their tragic lives as well as forced confessions of kidnap, torture, and murder), the prosecuting magistrates, the hostile witnesses, and the few Christian neighbors who tried in vain to help the Jews. Setting the trial and its documents in the historical context of medieval blood libel, Hsia vividly portrays how fact and fiction can be blurred, how judicial torture can be couched in icy orderliness and impersonality, and how religious rites can be interpreted as ceremonies of barbarism."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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Humanists, Jews, and the Tale of Simon of Trent

Author: Stephen D. Bowd,J. Donald Cullington

Publisher: Acmrs (Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies)

ISBN: 9780866984669

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 239

View: 4309

The death of a small child called Simon in the town of Trent in 1475 was blamed on the local Jewish community who were accused of abducting, torturing, and strangling him as a way of obtaining Christian blood to use in their rituals. The prince-bishop of Trent orchestrated a campaign against the Jews: poets and humanists wrote about the case on the basis of first-hand knowledge or acquaintance with the trial records and provided detailed accounts of the supposed Jewish conspiracy and murder. The 'blood libel' against the Jews was familiar to most Europeans but the tales from Trent made available in English here for the first time were unprecedented in their detail, savagery of denunciation, and scope of circulation thanks to the new medium of print. As a result the story of Simon's 'martyrdom' and miracles, as well as the prosecution and execution of the Jews, resonated in the European consciousness for centuries.
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Author: R. Po-Chia Hsia

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521841542

Category: History

Page: 268

View: 4991

The second edition of The World of Catholic Renewal offers an updated synthesis of the vast scholarship on the history of Catholicism from the Council of Trent in the middle of the sixteenth century to the suppression of the Society of Jesus in the eighteenth century. Professor Hsia discusses the doctrinal and ecclesiastical renewal after Trent and the progress of Catholic reconquest in various lands. He analyses the social composition of the Tridentine clergy and the papal curia and studies the making of early modern sainthood and the enclosure of religious women. Encompassing art and architecture, Ronnie Hsia attempts to understand Catholic renewal as a vast historical development that shaped European civilization and also explores its expansion and encounter with non-Christian cultures in America, Africa, and Asia. The new edition of this acclaimed textbook offers an additional chapter on The Catholic Book as well as an updated bibliography.
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Jews and Magic in Reformation Germany

Author: R. Po-chia Hsia

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300047462

Category: History

Page: 248

View: 3976

From the mid-fifteenth century to the early seventeenth, German Jews were persecuted and tried for the alleged ritual murders of Christian children, whose blood purportedly played a crucial part in Jewish magical rites. In this engrossing book R. Po-Chia Hsia traces the rise and decline of ritual murder trials during that period. Using sources ranging from Christian and Kabbalistic treatises to judicial records and popular pamphlets, Hsia examines the religious sources of the idea of child sacrifice and blood symbolism and reconstructs the political context of ritual murder trials against the Jews. "This volume combines clarity of thinking, elegance of style, and exemplary scholarly attention to detail with intellectual sobriety and human compassion."--Jerome Friedman, Sixteenth Century Journal "Hsia has... succeeded in turning established knowledge to illuminatingly new purposes."--G.R. Elton, New York Review of Books "This meticulously researched and unusually perceptive book is social and intellectual history at its best."--Library Journal "A fresh perspective on an old problem by a major new talent."--Steven Ozment, Harvard University R. Po-chia Hsia, professor of history at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, is also the author of Society and Religion in Münster, 1535-1618
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Author: Gail Feigenbaum

Publisher: Getty Publications

ISBN: 1606065718

Category: Art

Page: 236

View: 2157

The Getty Research Journal features the work of art historians, museum curators, and conservators from around the world as part of the Getty’s mission to promote critical thinking in the presentation, conservation, and interpretation of the world’s artistic legacy. Articles present original research related to the Getty’s collections, initiatives, and research projects. This issue features essays on the cross-cultural features of a small alabaster vessel in the “international style” of the ancient Mediterranean, French and Flemish influences in the Montebourg Psalter, a new identification for the so-called bust of Saint Cyricus, the effects of the Reformation on the art market in northern Europe, sketchbooks kept by the Portuguese painter João Glama Stroeberle containing comments from his teachers, the origins of the architectural history survey, Japanese ink aesthetics in non-ink media, the impact of the invention of adhesive tape in the 1930s on the artistic process of abstract painters, and the importance of ephemeral artifacts for the documentation of Carolee Schneemann’s performance works. Shorter texts include notices on an Egyptian ushabti from the tomb of Neferibresaneith, a bronze statuette newly identified as representing the Alexandrian god Hermanubis, and an etching by Félix Bracquemond commissioned by the Parisian gallery Arnold & Tripp.
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Author: Dana E. Katz

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812240855

Category: Art

Page: 228

View: 7238

Renaissance Italy is often characterized as a place of unusual tolerance and privilege toward Jews. Unlike England, France, Germany, Spain, and Portugal, the princely courts of early modern Italy, particularly Urbino, Mantua, and Ferrara, offered economic and social prosperity to Jews. When anti-Jewish hostilities created civic tumult in this region, secular authorities promptly contained the violence. Yet this written record tells only one part of the story. Pictures tell another. In The Jew in the Art of the Italian Renaissance, Dana E. Katz reveals how Renaissance paintings and sculpture became part of a policy of tolerance that deflected violence to a symbolic status. While rulers upheld toleration legislation governing Christian-Jewish relations, they simultaneously supported artistic commissions that perpetuated violence against Jews. The economic benefits Jewish toleration supplied never outweighed the animosity toward Jews' participation in the Christian community. Katz examines how particular forms of visual representation were used to punish Jews symbolically for alleged crimes against Christianity, including host desecration, deicide, and ritual murder. The production of such imagery testifies to the distinctive Jewry policies employed in the northern Italian princedoms, republican Florence, and imperial Trent. The book provides new insights into famous masterworks by Andrea Mantegna, Paolo Uccello, and others, placing these paintings within a larger discourse that incorporates noncanonical, provincial works of art.
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Crypto-Jewish Martyrdom in the Iberian World

Author: Miriam Bodian

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 0253116910

Category: Religion

Page: 304

View: 831

Miriam Bodian's study of crypto-Jewish martyrdom in Iberian lands depicts a new type of martyr that emerged in the late 16th century -- a defiant, educated judaizing martyr who engaged in disputes with inquisitors. By examining closely the Inquisition dossiers of four men who were tried in the Iberian peninsula or Spanish America and who developed judaizing theologies that drew from currents of Reformation thinking that emphasized the authority of Scripture and the religious autonomy of individual interpreters of Scripture, Miriam Bodian reveals unexpected connections between Reformation thought and historic crypto-Judaism. The complex personalities of the martyrs, acting in response to psychic and situational pressures, emerge vividly from this absorbing book.
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Author: Mary Elizabeth Perry

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691008547

Category: History

Page: 206

View: 5535

In this exploration of crisis in Counter-Reformation Spain, Mary Elizabeth Perry reveals the significance of gender for social order by portraying the lives of women who lived on the margins of respectability--prostitutes, healers, visionaries, and other deviants who provoked the concern of a growing central government linked closely to the church. Focusing on Seville, the commercial capital of Habsburg Spain, Perry uses rich archival sources to document the economic and spiritual activity of women, and efforts made by civil and church authorities to control this activity, during a period of local economic change and religious turmoil. In analyzing such sources as art and literature from the period, women's writings, Inquisition records, and laws and regulations, Perry finds that social definitions of what it meant to be a woman or a man persisted due to their sanctification by religious ideas and their adaptation into political order. She describes the tension between gender ideals and actual conditions in women's lives, and shows how some women subverted the gender order by using a surprisingly wide variety of intellectual and physical strategies.
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Author: DavidS. Areford

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351539671

Category: Art

Page: 346

View: 9269

Structured around in-depth and interconnected case studies and driven by a methodology of material, contextual, and iconographic analysis, this book argues that early European single-sheet prints, in both the north and south, are best understood as highly accessible objects shaped and framed by individual viewers. Author David Areford offers a synthetic historical narrative of early prints that stresses their unusual material nature, as well as their accessibility to a variety of viewers, both lay and monastic. This volume represents a shift in the study of the early printed image, one that mirrors the widespread movement in art history away from issues of production, style, and the artist toward issues of reception, function, and the viewer. Areford's approach is intensely grounded in the object, especially the unacknowledged material complexity of the print as a portable, malleable, and accessible image that depended on a response that was not only visual but often physical, emotional, and psychological. Recognizing that early prints were not primarily designed for aesthetic appreciation, the author analyzes how their meanings stemmed from specific functions involving private devotion, protection, indulgences, the cult of saints, pilgrimage, exorcism, the art of memory, and anti-Semitic propaganda. Although the medium's first century was clearly transitional and experimental, Areford explores how its potential to impact viewers in new ways?both positive and negative?was quickly realized.
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The Origins of the Blood Libel in Medieval Europe

Author: E.M. Rose

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190219645

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 3288

In 1144, the mutilated body of William of Norwich, a young apprentice leatherworker, was found abandoned outside the city's walls. The boy bore disturbing signs of torture, and a story spread that it was a ritual murder, performed by Jews in imitation of the Crucifixion as a mockery of Christianity. The outline of William's tale eventually gained currency far beyond Norwich, and the idea that Jews engaged in ritual murder became firmly rooted in the European imagination. E.M. Rose's engaging book delves into the story of William's murder and the notorious trial that followed to uncover the origin of the ritual murder accusation - known as the "blood libel" - in western Europe in the Middle Ages. Focusing on the specific historical context - 12th-century ecclesiastical politics, the position of Jews in England, the Second Crusade, and the cult of saints - and suspensefully unraveling the facts of the case, Rose makes a powerful argument for why the Norwich Jews (and particularly one Jewish banker) were accused of killing the youth, and how the malevolent blood libel accusation managed to take hold. She also considers four "copycat" cases, in which Jews were similarly blamed for the death of young Christians, and traces the adaptations of the story over time. In the centuries after its appearance, the ritual murder accusation provoked instances of torture, death and expulsion of thousands of Jews and the extermination of hundreds of communities. Although no charge of ritual murder has withstood historical scrutiny, the concept of the blood libel is so emotionally charged and deeply rooted in cultural memory that it endures even today. Rose's groundbreaking work, driven by fascinating characters, a gripping narrative, and impressive scholarship, provides clear answers as to why the blood libel emerged when it did and how it was able to gain such widespread acceptance, laying the foundations for enduring antisemitic myths that continue to the present.
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Author: Ariel Toaff

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781291916065

Category: History

Page: 374

View: 6409

This translation was performed free of charge to protest an injustice - the destruction by the ADL of Ariel Toaff's ""Blood Passover"" on Jewish ritual murder. The author is the son of the Chief Rabbi of Rome, and a professor of Jewish Renaissance and Medieval History at Bar-Ilan University in Israel, just outside Tel Aviv. Dr. Toaff is uniquely qualified to write this book, being thoroughly familiar with the derivative literature in English, French, German and Italian, as well as the original documentary sources in Latin, Medieval Italian, Hebrew and Yiddish. This is not something he worked on in secret. If it had been published in Israel, in Hebrew, no one would have cared. There are large bodies of literature in Hebrew that Jews do not wish Gentiles to know about. But Dr. Toaff's announcement of its publication in Italy, in Italian, raised a worldwide firestorm of fury. Under unbearable pressure, the book was withdrawn.
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Author: Thomas of Monmouth

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141970537

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 5468

A fascinating surviving chronicle from 12th-century England which holds a unique and terrible place in the history of anti-Semitism The Life and Passion of William of Norwich gives a remarkable insight into life in a medieval cathedral city, brilliantly capturing the everyday concerns of ordinary people and focussing on the miraculous cures carried out at a shrine. But this was no ordinary shrine; fervent worshippers gathered around the burial-place where they believed that a boy was buried, a boy murdered by the Jews of Norwich. A chilling, highly significant document, The Life and Passion of William of Norwich is, as far as we know, the earliest version of what was to become the 'blood libel' which has haunted Europe ever since. Miri Rubin both superbly translates the book and in her introduction interprets the sequence of events that led to the monk Thomas of Monmouth's appalling narrative. The consequences of his fantasies have been incalculable.
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Author: R. Po-chia Hsia

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1405178655

Category: History

Page: 592

View: 9246

This volume brings together 29 new essays by leading international scholars, to provide an inclusive overview of recent work in Reformation history. Presents Catholic Renewal as a continuum of the Protestant Reformation. Examines Reformation in Eastern and Western Europe, Asia and the Americas. Takes a broad, inclusive approach – covering both traditional topics and cutting-edge areas of debate.
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Author: R. Po-Chia Hsia,Henk Van Nierop

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139433907

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 1111

Dutch society has enjoyed a reputation, or notoriety, for permissiveness from the sixteenth century to present times. The Dutch Republic in the Golden Age was the only society that tolerated religious dissenters of all persuasions in early modern Europe, despite being committed to a strictly Calvinist public Church. Professors R. Po-chia Hsia and Henk van Nierop have brought together a group of leading historians from the US, the UK and the Netherlands to probe the history and myth of this Dutch tradition of religious tolerance. This 2002 collection of outstanding essays reconsiders and revises contemporary views of Dutch tolerance. Taken as a whole, the volume's innovative scholarship offers unexpected insights into this important topic in religious and cultural history.
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Author: Margaret L. King

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226436166

Category: Social Science

Page: 350

View: 4364

In this informative and lively volume, Margaret L. King synthesizes a large body of literature on the condition of western European women in the Renaissance centuries (1350-1650), crafting a much-needed and unified overview of women's experience in Renaissance society. Utilizing the perspectives of social, church, and intellectual history, King looks at women of all classes, in both usual and unusual settings. She first describes the familial roles filled by most women of the day—as mothers, daughters, wives, widows, and workers. She turns then to that significant fraction of women in, and acted upon, by the church: nuns, uncloistered holy women, saints, heretics, reformers,and witches, devoting special attention to the social and economic independence monastic life afforded them. The lives of exceptional women, those warriors, queens, patronesses, scholars, and visionaries who found some other place in society for their energies and strivings, are explored, with consideration given to the works and writings of those first protesting female subordination: the French Christine de Pizan, the Italian Modesta da Pozzo, the English Mary Astell. Of interest to students of European history and women's studies, King's volume will also appeal to general readers seeking an informative, engaging entrance into the Renaissance period.
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The Jews of Italy

Author: Sara Reguer

Publisher: Hodder Christian Books

ISBN: 9781618112446

Category: History

Page: 189

View: 4667

Since arriving in Rome more than 2,000 years ago, the Jewish communities of Italy have retained their identity over millennia. This book traces the foundations of their community, focusing on their economic, intellectual, and social lives as they moved between northern and southern Italy. Over the centuries these localized Italian groups were reinforced with the arrival of German, Provencal, Sephardic, and—most recently—Ashkenazi and Middle Eastern Jews. Surviving religious persecution, ghetto-ization, and the Holocaust, the Jews contributed to Italian society when they could. Supplemented by maps, illustrations, sidebars, and primary sources, this book is a scholarly yet popular overview of a minority group that is proud to be Italian and equally proud to be Jewish.
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Essays in Comparative Prosody

Author: Benjamin Harshav

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 030014573X

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 376

View: 5456

In this unparalleled study of the forms of Hebrew poetry, preeminent authority Benjamin Harshav examines Hebrew verse during three millennia of changing historical and cultural contexts. He takes us around the world of the Jewish Diaspora, comparing the changes in Hebrew verse as it came into contact with the Canaanite, Greek, Arabic, Italian, German, Russian, Yiddish, and English poetic forms. Harshav explores the types and constraints of free rhythms, the meanings of sound patterns, the historical and linguistic frameworks that produced the first accentual iambs in English, German, Russian, and Hebrew, and the discovery of these iambs in a Yiddish romance written in Venice in 1508/09. In each chapter, the author presents an innovative analytical theory on a particular poetic domain, drawing on his close study of thousands of Hebrew poems.
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