multiple tortfeasors

Author: W. V. H. Rogers,W. H. van Boom

Publisher: Kluwer Law Intl

ISBN: 9789041123190

Category: Law

Page: 313

View: 6523

The foundations of tort law differ considerably in the various European legal systems. For a number of years a group of tort law experts, The European Group on Tort Law, has been engaged in a systematic examination of the fundamental questions of tort law with a view to formulating principles which will contribute to a common law of Europe. Although the work has been centred on Europe, it has been informed by contributors from a number of overseas systems. This is the ninth volume in a series setting out the results of the work of the Group: earlier volumes have covered matters such as wrongfulness, causation, contributory negligence and liability for others. In this volume, The authors provide an overview of the law governing multiple tortfeasors (the situation where the victim of a tort contends that more than one person is responsible for an injury suffered by him) seen from the angle of fifteen legal systems. The law has two aspects: The iquest;externaliquest; one relating To The relationship between the victim And The tortfeasors, particularly the question of how far each is liable To The victim For The whole damage; And The iquest;internaliquest; relationship of the tortfeasors, raising issues of recourse inter se. Each country report consists of an account of the theoretical basis of the law in this area, together with an examination of its operation via a variety of factual situations. There is also a comparative report which summarizes the most important elements identified by the country reports and identifies the existing common ground. This volume provides the legal scholar And The practitioner with a wealth of information and insights on a complex and controversial area of law in an accessible form. Principles of European Tort Law Series 9
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Damages

Author: Ulrich Magnus,Francesco Donato Busnelli

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 225

View: 863

The foundations of tort law in various European legal systems differ considerably. Until now, there has not been an attempt to harmonise the entire field of tort law in a consistent manner. To rectify this, a group of tort lawyers has proposed to address the fundamental questions underlying every tort law system. The result is this important series of books, which searches for a common law of Europe without the necessity yet to lay these principles down in formal legal texts, such as a European civil code. Identifying the most relevant factors in establishing liability as wrongfulness, causation, damage, fault, and the area of strict liability, the authors concentrate on the tort liability factor under discussion in each volume, combining theoretical abstract analysis with the discussion of concrete cases. Each author gives an overview of the particular tort liability factor under his or her national legal system--primarily by working out the concept and its importance in establishing liability--and then applies the analysis to actual cases. The subsequent conclusions aim at the coordination of the results and other important factors. In summary, each volume tries to make clear what common ground pertaining to each tort liability factor underlies all the legal systems concerned with respect to the law of tort. Each volume also provides the academic and practitioner with the fundamental issues relating to that factor underlying the law of tort in the countries covered.
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Fault

Author: W. H. van Boom

Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.

ISBN: 904112098X

Category: Law

Page: 391

View: 8460

Covers various European countries, Israel, South Africa, and the United States.
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Author: Paula Giliker

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1782253793

Category: Law

Page: 262

View: 2520

Tort law is often regarded as the clearest example of traditional common law reasoning. Yet, in the past 40 years, the common law of England and Wales has been subject to European influences as a result of the introduction of the European Communities Act 1972 and, more recently, the implementation of the Human Rights Act 1998 in October 2000. EU Directives have led to changes to the law relating to product liability, health and safety in the workplace, and defamation, while Francovich liability introduces a new tort imposing State liability for breach of EU law. The 1998 Act has led to developments in privacy law and made the courts reconsider their approach to public authority liability and freedom of expression in defamation law. This book explores how English tort law has changed as a result of Europeanisation - broadly defined as the influence of European Union and European human rights law. It also analyses how this influence has impacted on traditional common law reasoning. Has Europeanisation led to changes to the common law legal tradition or has the latter proved more resistant to change than might have been expected?
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das Leben einer aussergewöhnlichen Frau und Schriftstellerin im Mittelalter

Author: Régine Pernoud

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783423306317

Category:

Page: 180

View: 8941

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Author: Vanessa Wilcox

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316668525

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 3216

Applying appropriate legal rules to companies with as much consistency and as little consternation as possible remains a challenge for legal systems. One area causing concern is the availability of damages for non-pecuniary loss to companies, a disquiet that is rooted in the very nature of such damages and of companies themselves. In this book, Vanessa Wilcox presents a detailed examination of the extent to which damages for non-pecuniary loss can be properly awarded to companies. The book focusses on the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights and English law, with a chapter also dedicated to comparative treatment. While the law must be adaptable, Wilcox concludes that considerations of coherency, certainty and ultimately justice dictate that the resulting rules should conform to certain core legal principles. This book lays the foundation for further comparative research into this topic and will be of interest to both the tort law and broader legal community.
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Author: Paula Giliker

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 178536572X

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 1182

The Research Handbook on EU Tort Law focuses on the study of the law of tort/delict/non-contractual liability of the European Union and examines the institutional liability of the EU, Francovich liability, and liability arising from a variety of EU secondary legislation (directives/regulations). The impact of EU tort law on national legal systems is wide-ranging, covering areas such as consumer law, competition law, data protection law, employment law, insurance law and financial services law. It also discusses the potential development of a European culture of tort law and harmonisation. This comprehensive Research Handbook contains contributions from leading authors in their field, representing a cross-section of European jurisdictions. It offers an authoritative reference point for academics, students and practitioners studying or working in this field, but one which is also accessible for those approaching the subject for the first time.
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Author: Hans-Bernd Schäfer,Claus Ott

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662083132

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 569

View: 5647

Das Buch enthält die Grundlagen der ökonomischen Analyse des Rechts und ihrer Anwendung auf das deutsche Zivilrecht. Es ist eine umfassende Darstellung dieser Forschungsrichtung, in der die Normen und Regelungsprobleme mit den Mitteln ökonomischer Theorie analysiert und bewertet werden. Wichtige Argumentationsfiguren der ökonomischen Analyse des Rechts werden in die zivilrechtliche Dogmatik eingebaut. Behandelt werden zentrale Bereiche des Zivilrechts wie das Delikts-, Vertrags-, und Sachenrecht, das Immaterialgüterrecht, Grundprobleme des Konkursrechts und die Grundzüge des Unternehmensrechts. Bei der Analyse rechtlicher Regeln des Gesetzesund Richterrechts wird gezeigt, inwieweit diesen ökonomische Kriterien zugrunde liegen und wie sie für die Rechtsanwendung und -fortbildung fruchtbar gemacht werden können.
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Author: Luisa Anatoniolli,Francesca Fiorentini

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3866538693

Category: Law

Page: 494

View: 5908

This book contains a case-based assessment of the Draft Common Frame of Reference carried out by the Common Core Evaluating Group, which gathers a number of well-established and younger scholars coming from Eastern and Western countries of the European Union using the working method of the research project "The Common Core of European Private Law" (www.common-core.org). The aim of the assessment is to test how the Draft Common Frame of Reference could work when applied in different national legal systems. To this end, a number of factual situations, i.e. hypothetical cases, have been drafted by the authors and solved through the application of both national rules and rules of the DCFR. Thereby, similarities and differences in the outcome of the cases have been analysed, together with difficulties - if any - in the application of the "Principles of European Law". The Common Core assessment has been carried out as part of the "Joint Network of European Private Law" Project (CoPECL), financed by the EU Commission.
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Interactions with Contract Law

Author: Miquel Martin-Casals

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781780682488

Category:

Page: 500

View: 8357

All European legal systems recognize a boundary between the domains of tort and contract. While there have been voices contending that this distinction is no longer valid, or at least that there should be a unification of the two sets of rules in particular contexts, others claim that there is still a very important distinction to be maintained. In fact, the boundary between the two areas is often blurred and whether it is drawn in one place or another varies from country to country, giving rise to the paradox that what is considered a matter of contractual liability in one legal system is governed exclusively by tort law in another. This volume explores how differences between tort and contract affect the foundations of liability, the nature and amount of the compensation, the extent of liability, and whether defenses and limitation periods corresponding to the distinct causes of action give rise to substantially different outcomes. The book also analyzes to what extent actions in tort and in contract exclude each other, and, when this is the case, how their concurrence is organized. Lastly, it devotes attention to specific situations, such as pre-contractual liability and the liability of professionals. (Series: Principles of European Tort Law - Vol. 2) [Subject: European Law, Tort Law, Contract Law]
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Author: Dirk Looschelders

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783161471681

Category: Law

Page: 681

View: 7835

English summary: In the case of traffic accidents and other incidents which cause damage, the injured party often shares responsibility for the damage. However up to now it has not been quite clear what the dogmatic basis for dealing with this problem is. Dirk Looschelders deals with contributory negligence of the injured party on the basis of comparative law. In general, negligence pertains to illegal conduct; however it is not illegal to contribute to damage to oneself. On the basis of his own dogmatic deliberations, the author examines the factual prerequisites for contributory negligence of the injured party in accordance with 254 of the BGB (Civil Code). He concludes his book with a detailed discussion of the general principles for allocating the damage to the party that caused the damage and the injured party. German description: Bei Verkehrsunfallen und anderen schadigenden Ereignissen ist der Geschadigte sehr oft fur den Schaden mitverantwortlich. Bei der praktischen Rechtsanwendung hat die Mitverantwortlichkeit des Geschadigten eine immense Bedeutung. Jedoch sind die dogmatischen Grundlagen fur die Behandlung dieser Problematik bislang weitgehend ungeklart. Dirk Looschelders behandelt die Mitverantwortlichkeit des Geschadigten auf breiter rechtsvergleichender Grundlage. Dabei wird deutlich, dass in allen untersuchten Rechtsordnungen die dogmatische Erfassung der Kategorie 'Verschulden' auf Seiten des Geschadigten besondere Schwierigkeiten bereitet. 'Verschulden' ist im allgemeinen auf rechtswidriges Verhalten bezogen; die Mitverursachung des eigenen Schadens ist hingegen nicht rechtswidrig. Zur Losung dieses Problems bezieht Dirk Looschelders das Verschulden des Geschadigten auf die Verletzung von Verhaltensnormen, die die Mitverursachung des eigenen Schadens lediglich hypothetisch gebieten. Er knupft dabei an die von Kant entwickelte Unterscheidung zwischen kategorischen und hypothetischen moralischen Forderungen an. Auf der Grundlage dieser dogmatischen Erwagungen werden die tatbestandlichen Voraussetzungen der Mitverantwortlichkeit des Geschadigten nach 254 BGB untersucht. Die fur den Schadiger massgeblichen Zurechnungskriterien mussen auf den Geschadigten entsprechend angewandt werden. Abschliessend erortert Dirk Looschelders die Grundsatze fur die Verteilung des Schadens zwischen Schadiger und Geschadigtem.
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Struktur, Prinzipien, Schutzbereich

Author: Gert Brüggemeier

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3540299114

Category: Law

Page: 705

View: 555

Die historisch gewachsenen nationalen Haftungsrechte in der EU stehen vor einer unbewältigten doppelten Herausforderung: Zum einen die Anpassung an die (post)industrielle Moderne (Stichworte: Risiken, Versicherung, Unternehmenshaftung); zum anderen die Harmonisierung in dem gemeinsamen Binnenmarkt der EG und in dem Verfassungsraum der EU. Der Verfasser misstraut allfälligen Kodifikations- und Vereinheitlichungsinitiativen. Er setzt auf die Annäherung "von unten", d. h. über die vorfindlichen Rechtsordnungen der Mitgliedstaaten. Dies setzt einen europäischen Diskurs über Struktur, Prinzipien und Schutzbereich voraus. Hierzu leistet der Verfasser für das Haftungsrecht einen Beitrag. In kritischer Auseinandersetzung mit dem deutschen Recht und mit vergleichendem Blick auf das englische und amerikanische sowie das französische Recht arbeitet er Entwicklungsperspektiven für ein europäisches Haftungsrecht heraus.
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Author: Nils Schmidt-Ahrendts

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783161495281

Category: Law

Page: 190

View: 7074

English summary: In the case of non-performance by one party, the other contracting party may choose between three different remedies: specific performance, damages and contract avoidance. In this book, Nils Schmidt-Ahrendts deals with the relationship between these three remedies in the context of the CISG, a subject controversial in practice as well as in literature. The source of this controversial debate is the diverging conception in today's common and civil law jurisdiction. In aiming to meet the expectations of practitioners and scholars alike, the author addresses the practical impact of the diverging conceptions of common and civil law on the calculation of damages in the case of a covering transaction. In doing so, the author outlines a fair allocation of risks in fluctuating markets. German description: Das Verhaltnis von Erfullung, Schadensersatz und Vertragsaufhebung im UN-Kaufrecht (CISG) ist gepragt durch das unterschiedliche Verstandnis des civil und des common law . Nils Schmidt-Ahrendts untersucht die daraus resultierenden Auswirkungen auf die Ersatzfahigkeit der Mehrkosten von Deckungsgeschaften unter Berucksichtigung der dogmatischen Grundstruktur des CISG, des Gebots der Rechtssicherheit sowie des Gebots einer hinreichend flexiblen und wirtschaftlich angemessenen Losung. Er kommt zu dem Ergebnis, dass das CISG den Glaubiger nur dazu berechtigt, unter der Bedingung der vorangehenden Vertragsaufhebung seinen Schaden anhand eines konkreten oder hypothetischen Deckungsgeschafts zu berechnen. Hierdurch soll verhindert werden, dass er die erschwerten Voraussetzungen einer Vertragsaufhebung umgeht. Ein im CISG normiertes Gebot der Schadensminderung erlegt dem Glaubiger die Pflicht auf, nach wirksamer Vertragsaufhebung ein angemessenes Deckungsgeschaft vorzunehmen, verpflichtet ihn jedoch weder dazu, bereits vor Vertragsaufhebung ein Deckungsgeschaft zu tatigen, noch dazu, durch eine fruhzeitige Vertragsaufhebung die Voraussetzung fur ein solches zu schaffen. Ebenso wenig gestattet das CISG dem Glaubiger, einen aus einem vorzeitigen Deckungsgeschaft entstandenen Differenzschaden zu liquidieren. Eine Ausnahme ist nur im Falle eines die Kosten des Deckungsgeschafts ubersteigenden Verzugsschadens sowie im Falle einer endgultigen und ernsthaften Erfullungsverweigerung des Schuldners denkbar, nicht aber anlasslich eines sich allein ungunstig entwickelnden Marktpreises.
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Author: Rose Arny

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: American literature

Page: N.A

View: 3660

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