Author: Noriko Hiroi,Viji M. Draviam,Tetsuya J. Kobayashi,Akira Funahashi,Chun-Biu Li,Douglas B. Murray,Hiroaki Takagi,Ziya Kalay,Rinshi S. Kasai,Jason Edward Shoemaker,Akatsuki Kimura,Naoki A. Irie

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 2889452131

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 741

With the emergence of Systems Biology, there is a greater realization that the whole behavior of a living system may not be simply described as the sum of its elements. To represent a living system using mathematical principles, practical quantities with units are required. Quantities are not only the bridge between mathematical description and biological observations; they often stand as essential elements similar to genome information in genetics. This important realization has greatly rejuvenated research in the area of Quantitative Biology. Because of the increased need for precise quantification, a new era of technological development has opened. For example, spatio-temporal high-resolution imaging enables us to track single molecule behavior in vivo. Clever artificial control of experimental conditions and molecular structures has expanded the variety of quantities that can be directly measured. In addition, improved computational power and novel algorithms for analyzing theoretical models have made it possible to investigate complex biological phenomena. This research topic is organized on two aspects of technological advances which are the backbone of Quantitative Biology: (i) visualization of biomolecules, their dynamics and function, and (ii) generic technologies of model optimization and numeric integration. We have also included articles highlighting the need for new quantitative approaches to solve some of the long-standing cell biology questions. In the first section on visualizing biomolecules, four cutting-edge techniques are presented. Ichimura et al. provide a review of quantum dots including their basic characteristics and their applications (for example, single particle tracking). Horisawa discusses a quick and stable labeling technique using click chemistry with distinct advantages compared to fluorescent protein tags. The relatively small physical size, stability of covalent bond and simple metabolic labeling procedures in living cells provides this type of technology a potential to allow long-term imaging with least interference to protein function. Obien et al. review strategies to control microelectrodes for detecting neuronal activity and discuss techniques for higher resolution and quality of recordings using monolithic integration with on-chip circuitry. Finally, the original research article by Amariei et al. describes the oscillatory behavior of metabolites in bacteria. They describe a new method to visualize the periodic dynamics of metabolites in large scale cultures populations. These four articles contribute to the development of quantitative methods visualizing diverse targets: proteins, electrical signals and metabolites. In the second section of the topic, we have included articles on the development of computational tools to fully harness the potential of quantitative measurements through either calculation based on specific model or validation of the model itself. Kimura et al. introduce optimization procedures to search for parameters in a quantitative model that can reproduce experimental data. They present four examples: transcriptional regulation, bacterial chemotaxis, morphogenesis of tissues and organs, and cell cycle regulation. The original research article by Sumiyoshi et al. presents a general methodology to accelerate stochastic simulation efforts. They introduce a method to achieve 130 times faster computation of stochastic models by applying GPGPU. The strength of such accelerated numerical calculation are sometimes underestimated in biology; faster simulation enables multiple runs and in turn improved accuracy of numerical calculation which may change the final conclusion of modeling study. This also highlights the need to carefully assess simulation results and estimations using computational tools.
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ABC of Bioinformatics

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128114320

Category: Medical

Page: 3284

View: 3481

Encyclopedia of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology: ABC of Bioinformatics combines elements of computer science, information technology, mathematics, statistics and biotechnology, providing the methodology and in silico solutions to mine biological data and processes. The book covers Theory, Topics and Applications, with a special focus on Integrative –omics and Systems Biology. The theoretical, methodological underpinnings of BCB, including phylogeny are covered, as are more current areas of focus, such as translational bioinformatics, cheminformatics, and environmental informatics. Finally, Applications provide guidance for commonly asked questions. This major reference work spans basic and cutting-edge methodologies authored by leaders in the field, providing an invaluable resource for students, scientists, professionals in research institutes, and a broad swath of researchers in biotechnology and the biomedical and pharmaceutical industries. Brings together information from computer science, information technology, mathematics, statistics and biotechnology Written and reviewed by leading experts in the field, providing a unique and authoritative resource Focuses on the main theoretical and methodological concepts before expanding on specific topics and applications Includes interactive images, multimedia tools and crosslinking to further resources and databases
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Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123947960

Category: Science

Page: 3008

View: 1803

The Encyclopedia of Cell Biology offers a broad overview of cell biology, offering reputable, foundational content for researchers and students across the biological and medical sciences. This important work includes 285 articles from domain experts covering every aspect of cell biology, with fully annotated figures, abundant illustrations, videos, and references for further reading. Each entry is built with a layered approach to the content, providing basic information for those new to the area and more detailed material for the more experienced researcher. With authored contributions by experts in the field, the Encyclopedia of Cell Biology provides a fully cross-referenced, one-stop resource for students, researchers, and teaching faculty across the biological and medical sciences. Fully annotated color images and videos for full comprehension of concepts, with layered content for readers from different levels of experience Includes information on cytokinesis, cell biology, cell mechanics, cytoskeleton dynamics, stem cells, prokaryotic cell biology, RNA biology, aging, cell growth, cell Injury, and more In-depth linking to Academic Press/Elsevier content and additional links to outside websites and resources for further reading A one-stop resource for students, researchers, and teaching faculty across the biological and medical sciences
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Author: Nathan Yau

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527760229

Category: Statistics / Graphic methods / Data processing

Page: 422

View: 5255

A guide on how to visualise and tell stories with data, providing practical design tips complemented with step-by-step tutorials.
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Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123851912

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 6221

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Author: Reinhard Guthke,Jörg Linde,Marc Thilo Figge,Franziska Mech

Publisher: Frontiers E-books

ISBN: 2889190609

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 7357

The systems biology of microbial infections aims at describing and analysing the confrontation of the host with bacterial and fungal pathogens. It intends to understand and to model the interaction of the host, in particular the immune system of humans or animals, with components of pathogens. This comprises experimental studies that provide spatio-temporal data from monitoring the response of host and pathogenic cells to perturbations or when interacting with each other, as well as the integrative analysis of genome-wide data from both the host and the pathogen. In perspective, the host-pathogen interaction should be described by a combination of spatio-temporal models with interacting molecular networks of the host and the pathogen. The aim is to unravel the main mechanisms of pathogenicity, to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets, and to explore novel strategies for personalized therapy by computer simulations. Some microorganisms are part of the normal microbial flora, existing either in a mutualistic or commensal relationship with the host. Microorganisms become pathogenic if they posses certain physiological characteristics and virulence determinants as well as capabilities for immune evasion. Despite the different pathogenesis of infections, there are several common traits: (1) Before infection, pathogens must be able to overcome (epithelial) barriers. The infection starts by adhesion and colonization and is followed by entering of the pathogen into the host through the mucosa or (injured) skin. (2) Next, infection arises if the pathogen multiplies and overgrows the normal microbial flora, either at the place of entrance or in deeper tissue layers or organs. (3) After the growth phase, the pathogen damages the host’s cells, tissues and organs by producing toxins or destructive enzymes. Thus, systems biology of microbial infection comprises all levels of the pathogen and the host’s immune system. The investigation may start with the pathogen, its adhesion and colonization at the host, its interaction with host cell types e.g. epithelia cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells, etc. Because infection diseases are mainly found in patients with a weakened immune system, e.g. reduced activities of immune effector cells or defects in the epithelial barriers, systems biology of infection can also start with modelling of the immune defence including innate and adaptive immunity. Systems biological studies comprise both experimental and theoretical approaches. The experimental studies may be dedicated to reveal the relevance of certain genes or proteins in the above mentioned processes on the side of the pathogen and/or the host by applying functional and biochemical analyses based on knock-out mutants and knock- down experiments. At the theoretical, i.e. mathematical and computational, side systems biology of microbial infection comprises: (1) modelling of molecular mechanisms of bacterial or fungal infections, (2) modelling of non-protective and protective immune defences against microbial pathogens to generate information for possible immune therapy approaches, (3) modelling of infection dynamics and identification of biomarkers for diagnosis and for individualized therapy, (4) identifying essential virulence determinants and thereby predicting potential drug targets.
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Die Geschichte der HeLa-Zellen

Author: Rebecca Skloot

Publisher: Irisiana

ISBN: 3641051754

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 512

View: 3062

Dieses Buch betrifft uns alle Sie waren notwendig, um Fortschritte gegen Krebs und AIDS zu erzielen. Klonen und Genforschung wäre ohne sie nicht möglich gewesen. Kurz: Die größten Erfolge der Medizin der letzten Jahrzehnte basieren auf der Entdeckung der HeLa-Zellen. Hinter dem Kürzel verbirgt sich eine Frau namens Henrietta Lacks. Die Afroamerikanerin aus ärmlichen Verhältnissen starb 1951 jung an Gebärmutterhalskrebs. Zuvor wurden ihr ohne ihr Wissen Zellproben entnommen, die sich überraschenderweise vermehrten. Damit war der entscheidende Durchbruch in der Zellkulturforschung geschafft. Die prämierte Wissenschaftsjournalistin Rebecca Skloot stellt in ihrem brillant verfassten Buch wichtige Jahrzehnte der Medizingeschichte vor und wirft dabei immer wieder ethische Fragen auf. Sie erzählt die tragische Familiengeschichte der Lacks’, die von Rassismus und mangelnden Bildungschancen geprägt ist. Ihr Buch ist eine gekonnte Mischung aus Biografie, Medizingeschichte, Debattenbuch und beachtlichem Enthüllungsjournalismus.
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Author: Andrew C. Harvey

Publisher: De Gruyter Oldenbourg

ISBN: 9783486230062

Category:

Page: 379

View: 9270

Gegenstand des Werkes sind Analyse und Modellierung von Zeitreihen. Es wendet sich an Studierende und Praktiker aller Disziplinen, in denen Zeitreihenbeobachtungen wichtig sind.
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Ein Methoden-Handbuch

Author: R. Ian Freshney

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110889021

Category: Science

Page: 420

View: 4070

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Author: Rachel Carson

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 3406704220

Category: Nature

Page: 348

View: 6503

Der stumme Frühling erschien erstmals 1962. Der Titel bezieht sich auf das eingangs erzählte Märchen von der blühenden Stadt, in der sich eine seltsame, schleichende Seuche ausbreitet … Das spannend geschriebene Sachbuch wirkte bei seinem Erscheinen wie ein Alarmsignal und avancierte rasch zur Bibel der damals entstehendenÖkologie-Bewegung. ZumerstenMal wurde hier in eindringlichem Appell die Fragwürdigkeit des chemischen Pflanzenschutzes dargelegt. An einer Fülle von Tatsachen machte Rachel Carson seine schädlichen Auswirkungen auf die Natur und die Menschen deutlich. Ihre Warnungen haben seither nichts von ihrer Aktualität verloren.
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Author: Bob Dylan

Publisher: Hoffmann und Campe

ISBN: 3455003443

Category: Fiction

Page: 80

View: 7936

In seiner Rede anlässlich der Verleihung des Nobelpreises für Literatur gibt Bob Dylan erstmals umfassend Einblick in seine literarischen Einflüsse und die Ursprünge seines Songwritings. Woher stammen die mythologischen Anspielungen in seinen Texten, woher die manchmal fast biblischen Gleichnisse? Welche Bücher haben seine Einstellung zum Leben geprägt? Und wo hat er die speziellen Ausdrucksweisen, Jargons, Kunstgriffe und Techniken gelernt? Neben dem prägenden Einfluss von Buddy Holly sowie der Country-, Blues- und Folkmusik der späten 50er und frühen 60er Jahre mit ihrer von spezieller Mundart geprägten Lyrics fließen vielfältige literarische Motive in seine Texte ein: die biblische Symbolik in Moby Dick, die Drastik eines Kriegsromans wie Im Westen nichts Neues, aber vor allem das Motiv der Reise aus der Odyssee als universeller, menschlicher Grundverfassung. Aus diesem Bodensatz heraus schuf Bob Dylan, wie er selber sagt, Lyrics, wie sie noch niemand zuvor gehört hatte.
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Die Geschichte von dir

Author: David Eagleman

Publisher: Pantheon Verlag

ISBN: 3641183154

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 1114

Unterhaltend und fundiert: Ein Pageturner über die Hirnforschung Die Hirnforschung macht rasante Fortschritte, aber nur selten treten wir einen Schritt zurück und fragen uns, was es heißt, ein Lebewesen und Mensch zu sein. Der renommierte Neurowissenschaftler David Eagleman nimmt uns mit auf die Reise durch das Gewirr aus Milliarden von Hirnzellen und Billionen von Synapsen – und zu uns selbst. Das sonderbare Rechengewebe in unserem Schädel ist der Apparat, mit dem wir uns in der Welt orientieren, Entscheidungen treffen und Vorstellungen entwickeln. Seine unendlich vielen Zellen bringen unser Bewusstsein und unsere Träume hervor. In diesem Buch baut Bestsellerautor David Eagleman eine Brücke zwischen der Hirnforschung und uns, den Besitzern eines Gehirns. Er hilft uns, uns selbst zu verstehen. Denn ein besseres Verständnis unseres inneren Kosmos wirft auch ein neues Licht auf unsere persönlichen Beziehungen und unser gesellschaftliches Zusammenleben: wie wir unser Leben lenken, warum wir lieben, was wir für wahr halten, wie wir unsere Kinder erziehen, wie wir unsere Gesellschaftspolitik verbessern und wie wir den menschlichen Körper auf die kommenden Jahrhunderte vorbereiten können.
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The Utility of Arthropods in Legal Investigations, Second Edition

Author: Jason H. Byrd,James L. Castner

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420008869

Category: Law

Page: 705

View: 1681

The first edition of Forensic Entomology: The Utility of Arthropods in Legal Investigations broke ground on all levels, from the caliber of information provided to the inclusion of copious color photographs. With over 100 additional color photographs, an expanded reference appendix, and updated information, the second edition has raised the bar for resources in this field, elucidating the basics on insects of forensic importance. New in the Second Edition: A chapter on insect identification that presents dichotomous keys Updates on DNA molecular techniques and genetic markers Coverage of new standardization in forensic entomological analysis Chapters on climatology and thermoregulation in insects 100 new color photographs, making available a total of 650 color photographs Goes Beyond Dramatics to the Nitty Gritty of Real Practice While many books, movies, and television shows have made forensic entomology popular, this book makes it real. Going beyond dramatics to the nitty gritty of actual practice, it covers what to search for when recovering entomological evidence, how to handle items found at the crime scene, and how to use entomological knowledge in legal investigations.
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Eine Einführung

Author: Paul M. Selzer,Richard J. Marhöfer,Oliver Koch

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662541351

Category: Science

Page: 184

View: 6927

Für Studierende und Wissenschaftler der Lebenswissenschaften schafft dieses Buch einen schnellen, strukturierten Zugang zur Angewandten Bioinformatik ohne Programmierkenntnisse oder tiefgehende Informatikkenntnisse vorauszusetzen. Es bietet eine Einführung in die tägliche Anwendung der vielfältigen bioinformatischen Werkzeuge und gibt einen ersten Überblick über das sehr komplexe Fachgebiet. Die Kontrolle des vermittelten Stoffs wird durch Übungsbeispiele mit Lösungen gewährleistet. Ein Glossar der zugrundeliegenden Fachtermini sowie ein ausführliches Sachverzeichnis runden das Buch ab. Für die 2. Auflage wurde das Werk umfassend aktualisiert.
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