Author: Robert M. Bastress, Jr.
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Constitutional law
The West Virginia State Constitution provides a review of the history and development of West Virginia's Constitution and an updated section-by-section analysis of its meaning. The State has had two constitutions, the original that was ratified in 1863 and the current one that was initially adopted in 1872. Both were rooted in the several Virginia Constitutions that preceded them but also included major reforms that emerged out of ongoing disputes between the western and eastern regions of antebellum Virginia. Amendments in the thirties and between 1968 and 1982 modernized the Constitution. This history is recounted in Part I of the book. This second edition provides section-by-section analysis that describes the origins and evolutions of the provisions and, more importantly, summarizes the interpretations given to them by the West Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals over more than 150 years of the State's existence. The text reduces the case law to readily grasped concepts and cites the leading cases. A useful and convenient table of cases is provided, and a bibliography to facilitate more extensive or specific research is included. The Oxford Commentaries on the State Constitutions of the United States is an important series that reflects a renewed international interest in constitutional history and provides expert insight into each of the 50 state constitutions. Each volume in this innovative series contains a historical overview of the state's constitutional development, a section-by-section analysis of its current constitution, and a comprehensive guide to further research. Under the expert editorship of Professor G. Alan Tarr, Director of the Center on State Constitutional Studies at Rutgers University, this series provides essential reference tools for understanding state constitutional law. Books in the series can be purchased individually or as part of a complete set, giving readers unmatched access to these important political documents.
Author: Nils Guhl
Category: Political Science
Inhaltsangabe:Abstract: Many states in the U.S., including West Virginia, are recently contemplating increasing the state cigarette excise tax rate in order to alleviate their tense budgetary situation. Two groups have dominated the political process of cigarette tax legislation. The health community contents that smokers impose costs on the society by excessively using the health care system and damaging the health of non-smokers through second hand smoke. Also, youth are unaware of the full risks of smoking and therefore unable to make fully informed decisions. Therefore, the health community demands higher cigarette taxes to deter youth smoking and make smokers bear the costs they impose on the public. The tobacco industry, lobbying for low cigarette taxes, argues that the current cigarette tax is sufficient to compensate for the excess health care costs of smokers. Higher taxes are also said to disturb the free market mechanism by depriving consumers of making free consumption decisions. Most importantly, rising tax differentials between states would lead to a large smuggling problem. In fact, West Virginia s border states Kentucky and Virginia and nearby North Carolina levy the lowest cigarette excise tax rates in the nation, currently being 3, 2.5, and 5 cents per pack, respectively. A tax hike on top of West Virginia s current 17 cents per pack may promote tax evasion and thus counteract the fund-raising efforts of the West Virginia State Government. This study carefully examines the economic validity of both lobby groups arguments and aids the legislative decision making process by providing a scientific framework for the appropriate taxation of cigarettes in West Virginia. Part I determines the efficient cigarette excise tax rate based on economic efficiency theory. Three potential market failures associated with cigarette consumption are examined: (1) External costs, (2) incorrect risk perception, and (3) addictive behavior. Criteria for the estimation procedure of the economic costs and the cost estimation of those market failures are presented and comprehensively discussed. The study particularly embeds the application of different addiction models to smoking decisions and assesses their fundamentally different impact on the efficient tax rate. For this purpose, the standard model of rational addictive behavior and the recent approach of time-inconsistent addictive behavior are reviewed. Based on most recent evidence, this study [...]
Author: Otis K. Rice,Stephen W. Brown
Publisher: University Press of Kentucky
" An essential resource for scholars, students, and all lovers of the Mountaineer State. From bloody skirmishes with Indians on the early frontier to the Logan County mine war, the story of West Virginia is punctuated with episodes as colorful and rugged as the mountains that dominate its landscape. In this first modern comprehensive history, Otis Rice and Stephen Brown balance these episodes of mountaineer individualism against the complexities of industrial development and the growth of social institutions, analyzing the events and personalities that have shaped the state. To create this history, the authors weave together many strands from the past and present. Included among these are geological and geographical features; the prehistoric inhabitants; exploration and settlement; relations with the Indians; the land systems and patterns of ownership; the Civil War and the formation of the state from the western counties of Virginia; the legacy of Reconstruction; politics and government; industrial development; labor problems and advances; and cultural aspects such as folkways, education, religion, and national and ethnic influences. For this second edition, the authors have added a new chapter, bringing the original material up to date and carrying the West Virginia story through the presidential election of 1992. Otis K. Rice is professor emeritus of history and Stephen W. Brown is professor of history at West Virginia Institute of Technology.
A Hands-on History
Author: Christopher J. Olsen
Publisher: Hill and Wang
Succinct, with a brace of original documents following each chapter, Christopher J. Olsen's The American Civil War is the ideal introduction to American history's most famous, and infamous, chapter. Covering events from 1850 and the mounting political pressures to split the Union into opposing sections, through the four years of bloodshed and waning Confederate fortunes, to Lincoln's assassination and the advent of Reconstruction, The American Civil War covers the entire sectional conflict and at every juncture emphasizes the decisions and circumstances, large and small, that determined the course of events.
The Constitutional Heritage of the Religion Clauses
Author: Arlin M. Adams,Charles J. Emmerich
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
Here is a concise overview of the historical development and judicial interpretation of the First Amendment religion clauses. It begins with a survey of the history of American religious liberty, goes on to present the views of the Founding Fathers, and then considers the core value of religious liberty and the constitutional purposes that implement that value. the book ends on a practical note by applying these principles to questions of equal access, religious symbolism in public life, and the task of defining religion for constitutional purposes. As the authors note in their introduction, "the historical principles that animate the religion clauses are more than an abstract intellectual exercise. . . . They provide an essential context for guiding the resolution of modern religious liberty issues."
Rethinking Board Leadership
Author: Dan Hotchkiss
Publisher: Alban Institute
In Governance and Ministry, Alban Institute senior consultant Dan Hotchkiss offers congregational leaders a roadmap and tools for changing the way boards and clergy work together to lead congregations. Hotchkiss demonstrates that the right governance model is the one that best enables a congregation to fulfill its mission--to achieve both the outward results and the inward quality of life to which it is called. Resources on governance for the nonprofit sector have burgeoned over the past decade, and this book translates some of what is most helpful from that world for clergy and lay leaders. it also recognizes that in some ways congregations are unique and need governance structures and processes different from those that work in other organizations. Leaders must continually balance the conserving function of an institution with the expectation of disruptive, change-inducting creativity that comes when individuals peek past the temple veil and catch fresh visions of the Holy. Governance in congregations is not the science of achieving optimal results through organizational re-engineering. Governance is an expressive art, like preaching. The forms of our congregations must reflect the values and perceptions of the sacred at their heart. Congregations need skills and methods for negotiating "our way" of governance and for passing the torch effectively to new leaders.
Author: Sandford F. Borins
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
Category: Political Science
Sandford Borins addresses the enduring significance of innovation in government as practiced by public servants, analyzed by scholars, discussed by media, documented by awards, and experienced by the public. In The Persistence of Innovation in Government, he maps the changing landscape of American public sector innovation in the twenty-first century, largely by addressing three key questions: • Who innovates? • When, why, and how do they do it? • What are the persistent obstacles and the proven methods for overcoming them? Probing both the process and the content of innovation in the public sector, Borins identifies major shifts and important continuities. His examination of public innovation combines several elements: his analysis of the Harvard Kennedy School's Innovations in American Government Awards program; significant new research on government performance; and a fresh look at the findings of his earlier, highly praised book Innovating with Integrity: How Local Heroes Are Transforming American Government. He also offers a thematic survey of the field's burgeoning literature, with a particular focus on international comparison.
Author: Michael A. Poe
Publisher: Arcadia Publishing
On October 28, 1770, George Washington entered present-day Jackson County by traveling south down the Ohio River. The Sachem tribe camped with Washington's party and expressed a desire to barter with the Virginia traders. Washington made extensive notes of the terrain, animals, and timber. By 1772, Washington had patents on more than 6,800 acres in Jackson County. This led to the Ohio River being the source of trade, entertainment, and survival early in the history of Jackson County. Named after the seventh president of the United States, Andrew Jackson, Jackson County was established by an act of the Virginia General Assembly on March 1, 1831, out of parts of Mason, Kanawha, and Wood Counties. The terrain is sandy with fertile bottomlands along the Ohio River and gently rolling hills toward the east. Ripley is the county seat, situated in the central part of the county, and is named in honor of Harry Ripley, who drowned in Big Mill Creek in 1830.
Covers All 50 States
Author: Michael Spadaccini
Publisher: Entrepreneur Press
Category: Business & Economics
Business owners received critical instruction on the vital operations, legal formalities and periodic filing requirements necessary to keep their LLCs in compliance and prevent legal and tax liabilities. Essential operations such as day-to-day management, record keeping, calling and conducting meetings, recording LLC actions through the drafting of minutes, accepting investment and issuing LLC stock, periodic reporting requirements and more are all covered in detail. Includes complete definitions and explanations of all concepts surrounding LLCs and the roles and responsibilities of owners and manager. More than just a book of forms, it distills complex concepts in a clear, concise writing style to help demystify the process. • Contains a complete reference section with legal requirements, filing fees, taxation requirements and maintenance requirements for all 50 states • A complete reference section compares and contrasts the legal requirements, filing fees, taxation requirements and periodic maintenance requirements for all the 50 states in a comprehensive state-by-state guide • Includes special sections for nonprofits and tax-exempt organizations • Dozens of LLC sample forms that cover the widest possible range of LLC compliance are available via download. • Entire chapter devoted to minimizing personal liability risk • Covers LLC legal formalities, internal governance, record-keeping, vital LLC mechanics and more
Author: T. Stephen Whitman
This book explains how the Battle of Antietam—a conflict that changed nothing militarily—still played a pivotal role in the Civil War by affording Abraham Lincoln an opportunity to announce the emancipation of slaves in states in rebellion.
Author: Jaimy Gordon
Publisher: Aufbau Digital
Riders on the Storm Tommy Hansels Plan ist der folgende: Lass vier Gäule laufen, die besser sind, als sie aussehen. Mach einen hübschen Reibach und dich schleunigst aus dem Staub. Aber schon im ersten Rennen siegt das falsche Pferd. Dann taucht aus dem Nichts ein Rappe auf, der des Teufels ist und das Schicksal aller wendet. Jaimy Gordons Roman ist voller Rhythmus, Originalität und Hingabe. Sie erzählt von Trainern, Jockeys und Kredithaien – verletzten, einsamen Bewohnern des amerikanischen Niemandslands. Doch so wie Tommys Freundin Maggie zu den geschundenen, aber schönen Pferden Zuneigung entwickelt, führt Gordon die ermatteten Hoffnungen jeder ihrer Figuren zum Ursprung allen Glücks zurück. Als Außenseiter gestartet, wurde dieses Buch in Amerika zur Sensation und als wichtigster Roman des Jahres ausgezeichnet. Brillant beschreibt Jaimy Gordon eine dunkelschöne Welt, die den amerikanischen Traum vergessen hat und in der das Menschenglück von einem einzigen Pferd abhängt. »Eine unerreichte Musikalität der Sprache.« Jury des National Book Award »Elegant und erfindungsreich.« New York Times »Komplex und fein gezeichnet.« The New Yorker »Wunderschön geschrieben.« The Washington Post National Book Award Winner