Apache Murder Trials in the Nineteenth Century

Author: Clare Vernon McKanna

Publisher: Texas Tech University Press

ISBN: 9780896725546

Category: History

Page: 223

View: 2280

"McKanna takes to task Arizona Territory's justice system during the 1880–90s." —True West "A stark, sharply critical, and edifying look at the iniquities of false justice." —Midwest Book Review Though trials in open court suggest impartiality, White Justice in Arizona reveals how, time and again, the judicial system of nineteenth-century Arizona denied Apaches justice. The Captain Jack, Gonshayee, Apache Kid, “Carlisle Kid,” and Batdish murder cases offer a sad, compelling commentary on injustice for Native Americans. That these trials all ended in Apache convictions, Clare V. McKanna Jr. argues, proves the unfairness of applying the American legal tradition to a culture that lived by very different social and legal codes. Conquered and forced from their lands by white outsiders, Apaches found their customs and methods of maintaining social control dramatically at odds with a new and completely alien legal system, a system that would not bend to integrate Apache or any other Native American culture. Through case studies of these very different murder trials, White Justice in Arizona probes the federal and state governments’ treatment of America’s indigenous populations and the cultural clashes that left justice the greatest casualty. “Clare V. McKanna Jr. analyzes the matrix of race, criminal law, and justice in nineteenth-century Arizona and finds fair trial for Indians absent. This is an important book advancing our understanding of race and justice in the American West by one of our most insightful historians.” —Gordon Morris Bakken, editor of Racial Encounters in the Multi-Cultural West
Read More

Author: Marianne O. Nielsen,Karen Jarratt-Snider

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 081653781X

Category: Social Science

Page: 216

View: 7632

Crime and Social Justice in Indian Country calls to attention the need for culturally appropriate research protocols and critical discussions of social and criminal justice in Indian Country. Contributors reflect on issues in three key areas: crime, social justice, and community responses to crime and justice issues. Each essay demonstrates how Indigenous communities are finding their own solutions for social justice, sovereignty, and self-determination.
Read More

The Story of Arizona Supreme Court Justice Lorna Lockwood

Author: Sonja White David

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781936587926

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 190

View: 7518

In the mid-1940s a group of women asked the governor of Arizona to appoint Lorna Lockwood to a vacancy on the Superior Court. His response was, "No woman is capable of being a judge." Having faced that kind of prejudice all of her life, she ran in the next election-and won. Ten years later, in 1960, she ran for a position on the State Supreme Court-and won again. And in 1965, she became the first woman chief justice on any state supreme court in America. Lorna, upon her retirement commented, "I had to work twice as hard to be considered for those posts because I was a woman." Lorna was born in 1903 on the southern border of the Arizona Territory in the mining town of Douglas when it was under the protection of the Arizona Rangers. Shoot-outs over gambling debts in saloons and dance halls, along with violence from the Mexican Revolution occasionally spilling across the border, were common. In 1913, Lorna's father left his law practice in Douglas to become the Superior Court Judge, and the family moved to the county seat of Tombstone. Lorna always loved visiting her father's law office; and later, visiting the Cochise County Courthouse watching her father preside over trials. She thought the law was the most important work anyone could do. Graduating from the University of Arizona with one of the highest grade point averages in her class, she applied to law school where she was told by the dean that "law school was no place for a woman." She was forced to present her case again and again before being admitted. After graduating in the top of her class and after being admitted to the Arizona State Bar, she discovered no law firm would hire her. She would not practice law for fourteen years. Lorna was persistent, and embarking on a journey against overwhelming odds and prejudices, she finally achieved and exceeded her goals. Lady Law is the story of Lorna Lockwood's remarkable journey.
Read More

Arizona and the Transformation of American Punishment

Author: Mona Lynch

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804772479

Category: Law

Page: 280

View: 8750

In the late 20th century, the United States experienced an incarceration explosion. Over the course of twenty years, the imprisonment rate quadrupled, and today more than than 1.5 million people are held in state and federal prisons. Arizona's Department of Corrections came of age just as this shift toward prison warehousing began, and soon led the pack in using punitive incarceration in response to crime. Sunbelt Justice looks at the development of Arizona's punishment politics, policies, and practices, and brings to light just how and why we have become a mass incarceration nation.
Read More

Author: Coy H. Johnston

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1544316127

Category: Social Science

Page: 248

View: 7644

Careers in Criminal Justice, Second Edition prepares you to plan, pursue, and realize your career goals—from conception through the hiring process. Coy H. Johnston’s contemporary approach emphasizes self-reflection and pragmatism in the pursuit of self-fulfillment and professionalism. With coverage of over forty careers in policing, courts, corrections, and victim services, you receive a comprehensive overview of the most popular and growing careers in the field. Self-assessment tools enhance your self-awareness and steer you toward realistic and suitable careers in criminal justice. This easy-to-read guide is organized to prepare and encourage growth throughout your career. New to the Second Edition: A new chapter titled “Volunteering and Internship” (Chapter 9) guides you through the important process of early involvement in the field to create a more enticing resume. Three new “Guest Speaker” profiles offer you new perspectives and practical advice on a variety of careers and geographical areas. New career assessment tools are included to help you evaluate your compatibility with various careers in the criminal justice field. Expanded information about critical areas such as private prisons, careers in the judiciary, and resume building ensures that you are receiving a balanced introduction to criminal justice careers.
Read More

An Annotated Bibliography

Author: Wade Davies,Richmond L. Clow

Publisher: Scarecrow Press

ISBN: 0810862360

Category: History

Page: 648

View: 8817

American Indian Sovereignty and Law: An Annotated Bibliography covers a wide variety of topics and includes sources dealing with federal Indian policy, federal and tribal courts, criminal justice, tribal governance, religious freedoms, economic development, and numerous sub-topics related to tribal and individual rights. While primarily focused on the years 1900 to the present, many sources are included that focus on the 19th century or earlier. The annotations included in this reference will help researchers know enough about the arguments and contents of each source to determine its usefulness. Whenever a clear central argument is made in an article or book, it is stated in the entry, unless that argument is made implicit by the title of that entry. Each annotation also provides factual information about the primary topic under discussion. In some cases, annotations list topics that compose a significant portion of an author's discussion but are not obvious from the title of the entry. American Indian Sovereignty and Law will be extremely useful in both studying Native American topics and researching current legal and political actions affecting tribal sovereignty.
Read More

Two Chicano Struggles in the Southwest

Author: Laura Pulido

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 9780816516056

Category: Political Science

Page: 282

View: 5785

Ecological causes are championed not only by lobbyists or hikers. While mainstream environmentalism is usually characterized by well-financed, highly structured organizations operating on a national scale, campaigns for environmental justice are often fought by poor or minority communities. Environmentalism and Economic Justice is one of the first books devoted to Chicano environmental issues and is a study of U.S. environmentalism in transition as seen through the contributions of people of color. It elucidates the various forces driving and shaping two important examples of environmental organizing: the 1965-71 pesticide campaign of the United Farm Workers and a grazing conflict between a Hispano cooperative and mainstream environmentalists in northern New Mexico. The UFW example is one of workers highly marginalized by racism, whose struggle--as much for identity as for a union contract--resulted in boycotts of produce at the national level. The case of the grazing cooperative Ganados del Valle, which sought access to land set aside for elk hunting, represents a subaltern group fighting the elitism of natural resource policy in an effort to pursue a pastoral lifestyle. In both instances Pulido details the ways in which racism and economic subordination create subaltern communities, and shows how these groups use available resources to mobilize and improve their social, economic, and environmental conditions. Environmentalism and Economic Justice reveals that the environmental struggles of Chicano communities do not fit the mold of mainstream environmentalism, as they combine economic, identity, and quality-of-life issues. Examination of the forces that create and shape these grassroots movements clearly demonstrates that environmentalism needs to be sensitive to local issues, economically empowering, and respectful of ethnic and cultural diversity.
Read More

Author: Jani Huso,Catherine H. Ellis

Publisher: Arcadia Publishing

ISBN: 9780738571386

Category: History

Page: 127

View: 1667

In true Old West fashion, Corydon Cooley and Marion Clark decided ownership of their ranch in the White Mountains with a game of "seven-up." Cooley turned over the winning low card, and the name, Show Low, became history. Today the main street is the "Deuce of Clubs," and visitors learn the town was "Named by the Turn of a Card." Mormon settlers and Apaches, sawmills and logging, hunting and fishing, and rodeos and ranching all add to the history of this tiny community. When Highway 60 was completed through Salt River Canyon in the 1930s, adequate access from Phoenix and the nation was finally available. At an elevation of 6,500 feet, there is usually a slight wind moving through the ponderosa pines, and Show Low stands ready to welcome visitors.
Read More

Spatial Conflicts and Urban Renewal in a Southwest City

Author: Lydia R. Otero

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 0816534918

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 1464

On March 1, 1966, the voters of Tucson approved the Pueblo Center Redevelopment Project—Arizona’s first major urban renewal project—which targeted the most densely populated eighty acres in the state. For close to one hundred years, tucsonenses had created their own spatial reality in the historical, predominantly Mexican American heart of the city, an area most called “la calle.” Here, amid small retail and service shops, restaurants, and entertainment venues, they openly lived and celebrated their culture. To make way for the Pueblo Center’s new buildings, city officials proceeded to displace la calle’s residents and to demolish their ethnically diverse neighborhoods, which, contends Lydia Otero, challenged the spatial and cultural assumptions of postwar modernity, suburbia, and urban planning. Otero examines conflicting claims to urban space, place, and history as advanced by two opposing historic preservationist groups: the La Placita Committee and the Tucson Heritage Foundation. She gives voice to those who lived in, experienced, or remembered this contested area, and analyzes the historical narratives promoted by Anglo American elites in the service of tourism and cultural dominance. La Calle explores the forces behind the mass displacement: an unrelenting desire for order, a local economy increasingly dependent on tourism, and the pivotal power of federal housing policies. To understand how urban renewal resulted in the spatial reconfiguration of downtown Tucson, Otero draws on scholarship from a wide range of disciplines: Chicana/o, ethnic, and cultural studies; urban history, sociology, and anthropology; city planning; and cultural and feminist geography.
Read More

New and Essential Readings

Author: Stephen K. Rice,Michael D. White

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814776167

Category: Social Science

Page: 535

View: 8769

From Rodney King and “driving while black” to claims of targeting of undocumented Latino immigrants, relationships surrounding race, ethnicity, and the police have faced great challenge. Race, Ethnicity, and Policing includes both classic pieces and original essays that provide the reader with a comprehensive, even-handed sense of the theoretical underpinnings, methodological challenges, and existing research necessary to understand the problems associated with racial and ethnic profiling and police bias. This path-breaking volume affords a holistic approach to the topic, guiding readers through the complexity of these issues, making clear the ecological and political contexts that surround them, and laying the groundwork for future discussions. The seminal and forward-thinking twenty-two essays clearly illustrate that equitable treatment of citizens across racial and ethnic groups by police is one of the most critical components of a successful democracy, and that it is only when agents of social control are viewed as efficient, effective, and legitimate that citizens will comply with the laws that govern their society. The book includes an introduction by Robin S. Engel and contributions from leading scholars including Jeffrey A. Fagan, James J. Fyfe, Bernard E. Harcourt, Delores Jones-Brown, Ramiro Martínez, Jr., Karen F. Parker, Alex R. Piquero, Tom R. Tyler, Jerome H. Skolnick, Ronald Weitzer, and many others.
Read More

A Story of Conquest, Renewal, and Race in the Making

Author: Daniel J. Herman

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 0816533946

Category: History

Page: 408

View: 5675

For thousands of years, humans have lived on the sprawling escarpment in Arizona known as the Mogollon Rim, a stretch that separates the valleys of central Arizona from the mountains of the north. A vast portion of this dramatic landscape is the traditional home of the Dilzhe’e (Tonto Apache) and the Yavapai. Now Daniel Herman offers a compelling narrative of how—from 1864 to 1934—the Dilzhe’e and the Yavapai came to central Arizona, how they were conquered, how they were exiled, how they returned to their homeland, and how, through these events, they found renewal. Herman examines the complex, contradictory, and very human relations between Indians, settlers, and Federal agents in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Arizona—a time that included Arizona’s brutal Indian wars. But while most tribal histories stay within the borders of the reservation, Herman also chronicles how Indians who left the reservation helped build a modern state with dams, hydroelectricity, roads, and bridges. With thoughtful detail and incisive analysis, Herman discusses the complex web of interactions between Apache, Yavapai, and Anglos that surround every aspect of the story. Rim Country Exodus is part of a new movement in Western history emphasizing survival rather than disappearance. Just as important, this is one of the first in-depth studies of the West that examines race as it was lived. Race was formulated, Herman argues, not only through colonial and scientific discourses, but also through day-to-day interactions between Indians, agents, and settlers. Rim Country Exodus offers an important new perspective on the making of the West.
Read More

The Use and Abuse of a Controversial Policing Tactic

Author: Michael D. White,Henry F. Fradella

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 1479835889

Category: Law

Page: 256

View: 8484

No policing tactic has been more controversial than “stop and frisk,” whereby police officers stop, question and frisk ordinary citizens, who they may view as potential suspects, on the streets. As Michael White and Hank Fradella show in Stop and Frisk, the first authoritative history and analysis of this tactic, there is a disconnect between our everyday understanding and the historical and legal foundations for this policing strategy. First ruled constitutional in 1968, stop and frisk would go on to become a central tactic of modern day policing, particularly by the New York City Police Department. By 2011 the NYPD recorded 685,000 ‘stop-question-and-frisk’ interactions with citizens; yet, in 2013, a landmark decision ruled that the police had over- and mis-used this tactic. Stop and Frisk tells the story of how and why this happened, and offers ways that police departments can better serve their citizens. They also offer a convincing argument that stop and frisk did not contribute as greatly to the drop in New York’s crime rates as many proponents, like former NYPD Police Commissioner Ray Kelly and Mayor Michael Bloomberg, have argued. While much of the book focuses on the NYPD’s use of stop and frisk, examples are also shown from police departments around the country, including Philadelphia, Baltimore, Chicago, Newark and Detroit. White and Fradella argue that not only does stop and frisk have a legal place in 21st-century policing but also that it can be judiciously used to help deter crime in a way that respects the rights and needs of citizens. They also offer insight into the history of racial injustice that has all too often been a feature of American policing’s history and propose concrete strategies that every police department can follow to improve the way they police. A hard-hitting yet nuanced analysis, Stop and Frisk shows how the tactic can be a just act of policing and, in turn, shows how to police in the best interest of citizens.
Read More

Bad Cops, Police Misconduct, and the New York City Police Department

Author: Robert J. Kane,Michael D. White

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814748414

Category: Social Science

Page: 222

View: 694

Drugs, bribes, falsifying evidence, unjustified force and kickbacks: there are many opportunities for cops to act like criminals. Jammed Up is the definitive study of the nature and causes of police misconduct. While police departments are notoriously protective of their own—especially personnel and disciplinary information—Michael White and Robert Kane gained unprecedented, complete access to the confidential files of NYPD officers who committed serious offenses, examining the cases of more than 1,500 NYPD officers over a twenty year period that includes a fairly complete cycle of scandal and reform, in the largest, most visible police department in the United States. They explore both the factors that predict officer misconduct, and the police department’s responses to that misconduct, providing a comprehensive framework for understanding the issues. The conclusions they draw are important not just for what they can tell us about the NYPD but for how we are to understand the very nature of police misconduct. ACTUAL MISCONDUCT CASES »» An off-duty officer driving his private vehicle stops at a convenience store on Long Island, after having just worked a 10 hour shift in Brooklyn, to steal a six pack of beer at gun point. Is this police misconduct? »» A police officer is disciplined no less than six times in three years for failing to comply with administrative standards and is finally dismissed from employment for losing his NYPD shield (badge). Is this police misconduct? »» An officer was fired for abusing his sick time, but then further investigation showed that the officer was found not guilty in a criminal trial during which he was accused of using his position as a police officer to protect drug and prostitution enterprises. Which is the example of police misconduct?
Read More

Living Traditional Justice

Author: Marianne O. Nielsen,James W. Zion

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 9780816524716

Category: Social Science

Page: 223

View: 2026

Describes and analyzes the Navajo peacemaking tradition of restorative justice, in which all participants are treated as equals with the purpose of preserving ongoing relationships and restoring harmony among involved parties.
Read More

52 of Arizona's Best Day Hikes for Winter, Spring, Summer & Fall

Author: Robert Stieve

Publisher: Arizona Highways Books

ISBN: 9780984570928

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 239

View: 3979

52 of the best day hikes in Arizona—one for each weekend of the year, organized by seasons. Selected hikes ranging from easy walks in the woods to challenging journeys to Arizona's highest peaks and deepest canyons—including the Grand Canyon. In-depth trail guides, descriptions, warnings and GPS coordinates are included with each hike.
Read More

Author: Linda Gordon

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674061713

Category: History

Page: 432

View: 5124

In 1904, New York nuns brought forty Irish orphans to a remote Arizona mining camp, to be placed with Catholic families. The Catholic families were Mexican, as was the majority of the population. Soon the town's Anglos, furious at this interracial transgression, formed a vigilante squad that kidnapped the children. This title tells this tale.
Read More

American Injustice in the Age of the Wealth Gap

Author: Matt Taibbi

Publisher: Spiegel & Grau

ISBN: 0679645462

Category: Political Science

Page: 448

View: 1588

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • NAMED ONE OF THE BEST BOOKS OF THE YEAR BY THE WASHINGTON POST, NPR, AND KIRKUS REVIEWS A scathing portrait of an urgent new American crisis Over the last two decades, America has been falling deeper and deeper into a statistical mystery: Poverty goes up. Crime goes down. The prison population doubles. Fraud by the rich wipes out 40 percent of the world’s wealth. The rich get massively richer. No one goes to jail. In search of a solution, journalist Matt Taibbi discovered the Divide, the seam in American life where our two most troubling trends—growing wealth inequality and mass incarceration—come together, driven by a dramatic shift in American citizenship: Our basic rights are now determined by our wealth or poverty. The Divide is what allows massively destructive fraud by the hyperwealthy to go unpunished, while turning poverty itself into a crime—but it’s impossible to see until you look at these two alarming trends side by side. In The Divide, Matt Taibbi takes readers on a galvanizing journey through both sides of our new system of justice—the fun-house-mirror worlds of the untouchably wealthy and the criminalized poor. He uncovers the startling looting that preceded the financial collapse; a wild conspiracy of billionaire hedge fund managers to destroy a company through dirty tricks; and the story of a whistleblower who gets in the way of the largest banks in America, only to find herself in the crosshairs. On the other side of the Divide, Taibbi takes us to the front lines of the immigrant dragnet; into the newly punitive welfare system which treats its beneficiaries as thieves; and deep inside the stop-and-frisk world, where standing in front of your own home has become an arrestable offense. As he narrates these incredible stories, he draws out and analyzes their common source: a perverse new standard of justice, based on a radical, disturbing new vision of civil rights. Through astonishing—and enraging—accounts of the high-stakes capers of the wealthy and nightmare stories of regular people caught in the Divide’s punishing logic, Taibbi lays bare one of the greatest challenges we face in contemporary American life: surviving a system that devours the lives of the poor, turns a blind eye to the destructive crimes of the wealthy, and implicates us all. Praise for The Divide “Ambitious . . . deeply reported, highly compelling . . . impossible to put down.”—The New York Times Book Review “These are the stories that will keep you up at night. . . . The Divide is not just a report from the new America; it is advocacy journalism at its finest.”—Los Angeles Times “Taibbi is a relentless investigative reporter. He takes readers inside not only investment banks, hedge funds and the blood sport of short-sellers, but into the lives of the needy, minorities, street drifters and illegal immigrants. . . . The Divide is an important book. Its documentation is powerful and shocking.”—The Washington Post “Captivating . . . The Divide enshrines its author’s position as one of the most important voices in contemporary American journalism.”—The Independent (UK) “Taibbi [is] perhaps the greatest reporter on Wall Street’s crimes in the modern era.”—Salon From the Hardcover edition.
Read More

Author: N. Prabha Unnithan

Publisher: SAGE Publications India

ISBN: 8132113357

Category: Social Science

Page: 476

View: 2133

Criminology and criminal justice is in its infancy in India. This book attempts to examine India's crime problem in detail and document if and how its criminal justice system has responded to emerging challenges and opportunities. The objective is to move beyond mere observations and thoughtful opinions, and make contributions that are the next steps in the development of an empirical (or evidence-based) criminology and criminal justice on this vast and diverse country-by focusing on research that is both balanced and precise. This book brings together a diverse set of 32 academics from India, the US, and the UK who have authored 19 chapters on many aspects of crime and justice in India. The organizational components or sectors of the criminal justice system are the police, the courts, and corrections. The studies collected here provide balanced coverage of the entire criminal justice system and not just one component of it. The first section of this book consists of overviews of several major issues that affect the entire criminal justice system. Section Two considers topics related to the gateway of the criminal justice system, policing. Section Three takes up the operational problems of criminal law and courts and Section Four deals with the difficult question of punishment and correction, the last part of the criminal justice system.
Read More

How Sandra Day O'Connor and Ruth Bader Ginsburg Went to the Supreme Court and Changed the World

Author: Linda Hirshman

Publisher: HarperCollins

ISBN: 0062238485

Category: History

Page: 432

View: 6023

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER WASHINGTON POST BESTSELLER The author of the celebrated Victory tells the fascinating story of the intertwined lives of Sandra Day O’Connor and Ruth Bader Ginsburg, the first and second women to serve as Supreme Court justices. The relationship between Sandra Day O’Connor and Ruth Bader Ginsburg—Republican and Democrat, Christian and Jew, western rancher’s daughter and Brooklyn girl—transcends party, religion, region, and culture. Strengthened by each other’s presence, these groundbreaking judges, the first and second to serve on the highest court in the land, have transformed the Constitution and America itself, making it a more equal place for all women. Linda Hirshman’s dual biography includes revealing stories of how these trailblazers fought for their own recognition in a male-dominated profession—battles that would ultimately benefit every American woman. She also makes clear how these two justices have shaped the legal framework of modern feminism, including employment discrimination, abortion, affirmative action, sexual harassment, and many other issues crucial to women’s lives. Sisters-in-Law combines legal detail with warm personal anecdotes that bring these very different women into focus as never before. Meticulously researched and compellingly told, it is an authoritative account of our changing law and culture, and a moving story of a remarkable friendship.
Read More

Life and Death in Arizona's Immigration War Zone

Author: Terry Sterling

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1493003062

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 604

Terry Greene Sterling enters the fearful ghettoes of Arizona, the gateway for nearly half of the nation's undocumented immigrants and the state that is the least welcoming toward them, to tell the stories of the men, women, and children who have crossed the border.
Read More