Author: Raphael Sealey
Publisher: UNC Press Books
Category: Literary Criticism
Based on a sophisticated reading of legal evidence, this book offers a balanced assessment of the status of women in classical Greece. Raphael Sealey analyzes the rights of women in marriage, in the control of property, and in questions of inheritance. He advances the theory that the legal disabilities of Greek women occurred because they were prohibited from bearing arms. Sealey demonstrates that, with some local differences, there was a general uniformity in the legal treatment of women in the Greek cities. For Athens, the law of the family has been preserved in some detail in the scrupulous records of speeches delivered in lawsuits. These records show that Athenian women could testify, own property, and be tried for crime, but a male guardian had to administer their property and represent them at law. Gortyn allowed relatively more independence to the female than did Athens, and in Sparta, although women were allowed to have more than one husband, the laws were similar to those of Athens. Sealey's subsequent comparison of the law of these cities with Roman law throws into relief the common concepts and aims of Greek law of the family. Originally published in 1990. A UNC Press Enduring Edition -- UNC Press Enduring Editions use the latest in digital technology to make available again books from our distinguished backlist that were previously out of print. These editions are published unaltered from the original, and are presented in affordable paperback formats, bringing readers both historical and cultural value.
Author: Sue Blundell
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Largely excluded from any public role, the women of ancient Greece nonetheless appear in various guises in the art and writing of the period, and in legal documents. These representations reveal a great deal about women's day-to-day experience as well as their legal and economic position - and how they were regarded by men.
Volume 2: Ancient Greece
Author: Elisabeth Meier Tetlow
Publisher: A&C Black
The ancient period of Greek history, to which this volume is devoted, began in late Bronze Age in the second millennium and lasted almost to the end of the first century BCE, when the last remnant of the Hellenistic empire created by Alexander the Great was conquered by the Romans. Extant texts of law of actual laws are few and often found embedded in other sources, such as the works of orators and historians. Greek literature, from the epics of Homer to the classical dramas, provides a valuable source of information. However, since literary sources are fictional portrayals and often reflect the times and biases of the authors, other more concrete evidence from archaeology has been used throughout the volume to confirm and contextualize the literary evidence about women, crime, and punishment in ancient Greece. The volume is divided into three parts: (I) Mykenean and Archaic Greece, (II) Classical Greece, and (III the Hellenistic Period. The book includes illustrations, maps, lists of Hellenistic dynasties, and Indices of Persons, Place and Subjects. Crime and punishment, criminal law and its administration, are areas of ancient history that have been explored less than many other aspects of ancient civilizations. Throughout history women have been affected by crime both as victims and as offenders. In the ancient world, customary laws were created by men, formal laws were written by men, and both were interpreted and enforced by men. This two-volume work explores the role of gender in the formation and administration of ancient law and examines the many gender categories and relationships established in ancient law, including legal personhood, access to courts, citizenship, political office, religious office, professions, marriage, inheritance, and property ownership. Thus it focuses on women and crime within the context of women in the society.
Law and Economics Perspectives
Author: Morris Silver
Publisher: Oxbow Books
Greek scholars have produced a vast body of evidence bearing on nuptial practices that has yet to be mined by a professional economist. By standing on their shoulders, the author proposes and tests radically new interpretations of three important status groups in Greek history: the pallak?, the nothos, and the hetaira. It is argued that legitimate marriage – marriage by loan of the bride to the groom – was not the only form of legal marriage in classical Athens and the ancient Greek world generally. Pallakia – marriage by sale of the bride to the groom – was also legally recognized. The pallak?-wifeship transaction is a sale into slavery with a restrictive covenant mandating the employment of the sold woman as a wife. In this highly original and challenging new book, economist Morris Silver proposes and tests the hypothesis that the likelihood of bride sale rises with increases in the distance between the ancestral residence of the groom and the father’s household. Nothoi, the bastard children of pallakai, lacked the legal right to inherit from their fathers but were routinely eligible for Athenian citizenship. It is argued that the basic social meaning of hetaira (companion) is not ‘prostitute’ or ’courtesan,’ but ‘single woman’ – a woman legally recognized as being under her own authority (kuria). The defensive adaptation of single women is reflected in Greek myth and social practice by their grouping into packs, most famously the Daniads and Amazons.
Author: Sharon L. James,Sheila Dillon
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This publication presents an interdisciplinary, methodologically-based collection of essays on the study of women in the ancient world. It explores a broad range of topics relating to women in antiquity, including: mother-goddess theory; women in Homer, pre-Roman Italy, the Near East, women and the family, the state, and religion; Dress and adornment; female patronage; Hellenistic Queens; imperial women; women in late Antiquity; early women saints; and many more. PART I Women outside Athens and Rome 5; Case study I: The mother goddess in prehistory: debates and perspectives / Lauren Talalay; 1. Women in ancient Mesopotamia 11 / Amy R. Gansell; 2. Hidden voices: unveiling women in ancient Egypt / Kasia Szpakowska; 3. Looking for Minoan and Mycenaean women: paths of feminist scholarship towards the Aegean Bronze Age / Marianna Nikolaïdou; 4. Women in Homer / Cristiana Franco; 5. Etruscan women: towards a reappraisal / Vedia Izzet; PART II The archaic and classical periods; Case study II: Sex and the single girl: the Cologne fragment of Archilochus / Sharon L. James; 6. Woman, city, state: theories, ideologies, and concepts in the Archaic and classical Periods / Madeleine M. Henry and Sharon L. James; 7. Women and law / Barbara Levick; 8. Women and medicine / Holt Parker; 9. Reading the bones: interpreting the skeletal evidence for women's lives in ancient Greece / Maria A. Liston; 10. Approaches to reading attic vases / Kathryn Topper; 11. Spartan girls and the Athenian Gaze / Jenifer Neils; 12.Interpreting Women in Archaic and Classical Greek Sculpture / A. A. Donohue; 13. Dress and adornment in archaic and classical Greece / Mireille M. Lee; 14. Women and religion in Greece / Eva Stehle; 15. Women and Roman religion / Lora L. Holland; 16. Women in Magna Graecia / Gillian Shepherd; PART III Women in a cosmopolitan world: the Hellenistic and late republican periods / Case study III: Hellenistic Tanagra figurines / Sheila Dillon; Case Study IV: Domestic female slaves in Roman comedy / Sharon L. James; 17. Female patronage in the Greek Hellenistic and Roman republican periods / Anne Bielman; 18. Women on Hellenistic grave Stelai: reading images and texts / Christina A. Salowey; 19. Female portraiture in the Hellenistic period / Sheila Dillon; 20. Women and family in Menander / Cheryl A. Cox; 21. Gender and space, 'public' and 'Private' / Monika Trümper; 22. Oikos Keeping: women and monarchy in the Macedonian tradition / Elizabeth D. Carney; 23. The women of Ptolemaic Egypt: the view from Papyrology / Maryline Parca; 24. Jewish women: texts and contexts / Laura S. Lieber; 25. Women, education, and philosophy / Marguerite Deslauriers; 26. Perceptions of women's power in the late Republic: Terentia, Fulvia, and the generation of 63 BCE / T. Corey Brennan; PART IV The beginnings of empire; Case Study V: Vergil's Dido / Sharon L. James; 27. Women in Augustan Rome / Judith P. Hallett; 28. Women in Augustan literature / Alison Keith; 29. Women on the Bay of Naples / Eve D'Ambra; 30. Early imperial female portraiture / Elizabeth Bartman; 31. Portraits, prestige, piety: images of women in Roman Egypt / Christina Riggs; PART V From empire to christianity; Case study VI: Female portraiture in Palmyra / Maura K. Heyn; 32. Women in imperial Roman literature / Rhiannon Ash; 33. Female portraiture and female patronage in the high imperial period / Rachel Meyers; 34. Women in Roman Britain / Lindsay Allason-Jones; 35. Public roles for women in the cities of the Latin West / Emily A. Hemelrijk; 36. Rari exempli femina: female virtues on Roman funerary inscriptions / Werner Riess; 37. Women in Late Antique Egypt / Jennifer Sheridan Moss; 38. Representations of women in late Antiquity and early Byzantium / Ioli Kalavrezou; 39. Becoming christian / Ross S. Kraemer; Appendix: Women in Late Antiquity (Apart from Egypt): A bibliography.
Essays on Law, Society, and Politics
Author: Edward M. Harris
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This volume brings together essays on Athenian law by Edward M. Harris, who challenges much of the recent scholarship on this topic. Presenting a balanced analysis of the legal system in ancient Athens, Harris stresses the importance of substantive issues and their contribution to our understanding of different types of legal procedures. He combines careful philological analysis with close attention to the political and social contexts of individual statutes. Collectively, the essays in this volume demonstrate the relationship between law and politics, the nature of the economy, the position of women, and the role of the legal system in Athenian society. They also show that the Athenians were more sophisticated in their approach to legal issues than has been assumed in the modern scholarship on this topic.
Mythologies of Birth in Ancient Greece and Rome
Author: Maurizio Bettini
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Category: Literary Criticism
If you told a woman her sex had a shared, long-lived history with weasels, she might deck you. But those familiar with mythology know better: that the connection between women and weasels is an ancient and favorable one, based in the Greek myth of a midwife who tricked the gods to ease Heracles’s birth—and was turned into a weasel by Hera as punishment. Following this story as it is retold over centuries in literature and art, Women and Weasels takes us on a journey through mythology and ancient belief, revising our understanding of myth, heroism, and the status of women and animals in Western culture. Maurizio Bettini recounts and analyzes a variety of key literary and visual moments that highlight the weasel’s many attributes. We learn of its legendary sexual and childbearing habits and symbolic association with witchcraft and midwifery, its role as a domestic pet favored by women, and its ability to slip in and out of tight spaces. The weasel, Bettini reveals, is present at many unexpected moments in human history, assisting women in labor and thwarting enemies who might plot their ruin. With a parade of symbolic associations between weasels and women—witches, prostitutes, midwives, sisters-in-law, brides, mothers, and heroes—Bettini brings to life one of the most venerable and enduring myths of Western culture.
Author: Jacqueline Fabre-Serris,Alison Keith
Publisher: JHU Press
The martial virtues—courage, loyalty, cunning, and strength—were central to male identity in the ancient world, and antique literature is replete with depictions of men cultivating and exercising these virtues on the battlefield. In Women and War in Antiquity, sixteen scholars reexamine classical sources to uncover the complex but hitherto unexplored relationship between women and war in ancient Greece and Rome. They reveal that women played a much more active role in battle than previously assumed, embodying martial virtues in both real and mythological combat. The essays in the collection, taken from the first meeting of the European Research Network on Gender Studies in Antiquity, approach the topic from philological, historical, and material culture perspectives. The contributors examine discussions of women and war in works that span the ancient canon, from Homer’s epics and the major tragedies in Greece to Seneca’s stoic writings in first-century Rome. They consider a vast panorama of scenes in which women are portrayed as spectators, critics, victims, causes, and beneficiaries of war. This deft volume, which ultimately challenges the conventional scholarly opposition of standards of masculinity and femininity, will appeal to scholars and students of the classical world, European warfare, and gender studies. -- Kurt Raaflaub, Brown University, coeditor of Raymond Westbrook’
Author: Jane F. Gardner
Publisher: Indiana University Press
"The book meets the highest standards of scholarly rigor, and treatment of disputed issues is informative without being esoteric. An excellent general survey and introduction." -- Choice "... will be enormously useful for those interested in teaching courses on Roman women or Roman law." -- The Classical Outlook
Author: Bonnie MacLachlan
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
The study of women in the ancient Mediterranean world is a topic of growing interest among classicists and ancient historians, and also students of history, sociology and women's studies. This volume is an essential resource supplying a compilation of source material in translation, with suggestions for further reading,Ã?Â a general bibliography, and an index of ancient authors and works. Texts come from literary, rhetorical, philosophical and legal sources, as well as papyri and inscriptions, and each text will be placed into the cultural mosaic to which it belongs. Ranging geographically from the Greek mainland and the communities along the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, to Egypt and the Greek West (modern day southern Italy and Sicily), the volume follows a clear chronological structure. Beginning in the eighth century BCE the coverage continues through Archaic and Classical Athens concluding with the Hellenistic era.Ã?Â Ã?Â
Author: Susan Deacy,Fiona McHardy
Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic
At the heart of this study is the violent crime committed in ancient Greek society against women and by women. These themes, intensely debated and increasingly the focus of current research, have grown in importance within the wider study of gender and sexuality in the ancient world. The authors examine the portrayal of violence across a range of sources to develop a picture of gender and crime in ancient Greek law, literature, myth and society. The volume breaks new ground because it adopts an evolutionary biological approach to the subject, in particular by examining the research of psychologists Margo Wilson and Martin Daly, who in their studies of contemporary sexual crime mooted that sexual jealousy is at the root of the majority of violent acts including murder. Deacy and McHardy explore how this modern study can be brought to bear on Classical scholarship around the same themes in antiquity. They also provide a methodological approach that combines 'grand' theory with an exploration of cultural contexts and historical development, considering the critiques from recent decades of the universalist premises that grew out of second wave feminism. Exploring such theoretical issues in the first two chapters, each subsequent, thematic, chapter will examine evidence from a range of sources and conclude with a case study.
Author: Daniel Ogden
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Societies are defined at their margins. In the ancient Greek world bastards were often marginal, their affinities being with the female, the alien, the servile, the poor, and the sick. The study of bastardy in ancient Greece is therefore of an importance that goes far beyond the subject's intrinsic interest, and provides insights into the structure of Greek society as a whole. This is the first full-length book on the subject, and it reviews the major evidence from Athens, Sparta, Gortyn, and Hellenistic Egypt, as well as collating and analysing fragmentary evidence from the other Greek states. Dr Ogden shows how attitudes towards legitimacy differed across the various city states, and analyses their developments across time. He also advances new interpretations of more familiar problems of Athenian bastardy, such as Pericles' citizenship law. The book should interest historians of a wide range of social topics - from law and the economy to the study of women in antiquity and sexuality.
Author: Sue Blundell,Margaret Williamson,Margaret Williamson**Nfa***
In classical Greece women were almost entirely excluded from public life. Yet the feminine was accorded a central place in religious thought and ritual.This volume explores the often paradoxical centrality of the feminine in Greek culture, showing how out of sight was not out of mind. The contributors adopt perspectives from a wide range of disciplines, such as archaeology, art history, psychology and anthropology, in order to investigate various aspects of religion and cult. They include the part played by women in death ritual, the role of heroines, and the fact that goddesses had no childhood, at the same time posing questions about how we know what rituals meant to their participants. The Sacred and the Feminine in Ancient Greece is a lively and colourful exploration of the ways in which religion and ritual reveal women's importance in the Greek polis, showing how ideologies about female roles and behaviour were both endorsed and challenged in the realm of the sacred.
Women on Trial in Ancient Athens
Author: Esther Eidinow
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Athens (Greece)
At the heart of this volume are three trials held in Athens in the fourth century BCE. The defendants were all women and in each case the charges involved a combination of ritual activities. Two were condemned to death. Because of the brevity of the ancient sources, and their lack of agreement, the precise charges are unclear, and the reasons for taking these women to court remain mysterious. Envy, Poison, and Death takes the complexity and confusion ofthe evidence not as a riddle to be solved, but as revealing multiple social dynamics. It explores the changing factors—material, ideological, and psychological—that may have provoked these events,revealing how these trials provide a vivid glimpse of the socio-political environment of Athens during the early-mid fourth century BCE, including responses to changes in women's status and behaviour, and attitudes to particular supernatural or religious activities within the city.
Author: Rosanna Omitowoju
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Were acts of sex which we would call rape and regard as a criminal offence similarly regarded in classical Athens? That is the main question posed in this book, the first in-depth study of the topic ever to be undertaken. It considers the legal terminology for rape and discusses exactly what these different terms describe. It also examines literary stories where rape and/or seduction feature as plot devices and looks at different characters' responses to them. The book's presentation makes it accessible to a wider readership of non-classicists.
Author: Cynthia B. Patterson
Publisher: Harvard University Press
The family, Cynthia Patterson demonstrates, played a key role in the political changes that mark the history of ancient Greece. From the archaic society portrayed in Homer and Hesiod to the Hellenistic age, the private world of the family and household was integral with and essential to the civic realm. Early Greek society was rooted not in clans but in individual households, and a man's or woman's place in the larger community was determined by relationships within those households. The development of the city-state did not result in loss of the family's power and authority, Patterson argues; rather, the protection of household relationships was an important element of early public law. The interaction of civic and family concerns in classical Athens is neatly articulated by the examples of marriage and adultery laws. In law courts and in theater performances, violation of marital relationships was presented as a public danger, the adulterer as a sexual thief. This is an understanding that fits the Athenian concept of the city as the highest form of family. The suppression of the cities with the ascendancy of Alexander's empire led to a new resolution of the relationship between public and private authority: the concept of a community of households, which is clearly exemplified in Menander's plays. Undercutting common interpretations of Greek experience as evolving from clan to patriarchal state, Patterson's insightful analysis sheds new light on the role of men and women in Greek culture.
Juridical Discourse in Athenian Forensic Oratory
Author: Victoria Wohl
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Recent literary-critical work in legal studies reads law as a genre of literature, noting that Western law originated as a branch of rhetoric in classical Greece and lamenting the fact that the law has lost its connection to poetic language, narrative, and imagination. But modern legal scholarship has paid little attention to the actual juridical discourse of ancient Greece. This book rectifies that neglect through an analysis of the courtroom speeches from classical Athens, texts situated precisely at the intersection between law and literature. Reading these texts for their subtle literary qualities and their sophisticated legal philosophy, it proposes that in Athens' juridical discourse literary form and legal matter are inseparable. Through its distinctive focus on the literary form of Athenian forensic oratory, Law's Cosmos aims to shed new light on its juridical thought, and thus to change the way classicists read forensic oratory and legal historians view Athenian law.