Author: Raphael Sealey

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469610248

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 216

View: 6130

Based on a sophisticated reading of legal evidence, this book offers a balanced assessment of the status of women in classical Greece. Raphael Sealey analyzes the rights of women in marriage, in the control of property, and in questions of inheritance. He advances the theory that the legal disabilities of Greek women occurred because they were prohibited from bearing arms. Sealey demonstrates that, with some local differences, there was a general uniformity in the legal treatment of women in the Greek cities. For Athens, the law of the family has been preserved in some detail in the scrupulous records of speeches delivered in lawsuits. These records show that Athenian women could testify, own property, and be tried for crime, but a male guardian had to administer their property and represent them at law. Gortyn allowed relatively more independence to the female than did Athens, and in Sparta, although women were allowed to have more than one husband, the laws were similar to those of Athens. Sealey's subsequent comparison of the law of these cities with Roman law throws into relief the common concepts and aims of Greek law of the family. Originally published in 1990. A UNC Press Enduring Edition -- UNC Press Enduring Editions use the latest in digital technology to make available again books from our distinguished backlist that were previously out of print. These editions are published unaltered from the original, and are presented in affordable paperback formats, bringing readers both historical and cultural value.
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Author: Sue Blundell

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674954731

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 9239

Largely excluded from any public role, the women of ancient Greece nonetheless appear in various guises in the art and writing of the period, and in legal documents. These representations reveal a great deal about women's day-to-day experience as well as their legal and economic position - and how they were regarded by men.
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Volume 2: Ancient Greece

Author: Elisabeth Meier Tetlow

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 9780826416292

Category: History

Page: 300

View: 6459

The ancient period of Greek history, to which this volume is devoted, began in late Bronze Age in the second millennium and lasted almost to the end of the first century BCE, when the last remnant of the Hellenistic empire created by Alexander the Great was conquered by the Romans. Extant texts of law of actual laws are few and often found embedded in other sources, such as the works of orators and historians. Greek literature, from the epics of Homer to the classical dramas, provides a valuable source of information. However, since literary sources are fictional portrayals and often reflect the times and biases of the authors, other more concrete evidence from archaeology has been used throughout the volume to confirm and contextualize the literary evidence about women, crime, and punishment in ancient Greece. The volume is divided into three parts: (I) Mykenean and Archaic Greece, (II) Classical Greece, and (III the Hellenistic Period. The book includes illustrations, maps, lists of Hellenistic dynasties, and Indices of Persons, Place and Subjects. Crime and punishment, criminal law and its administration, are areas of ancient history that have been explored less than many other aspects of ancient civilizations. Throughout history women have been affected by crime both as victims and as offenders. In the ancient world, customary laws were created by men, formal laws were written by men, and both were interpreted and enforced by men. This two-volume work explores the role of gender in the formation and administration of ancient law and examines the many gender categories and relationships established in ancient law, including legal personhood, access to courts, citizenship, political office, religious office, professions, marriage, inheritance, and property ownership. Thus it focuses on women and crime within the context of women in the society.
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Law and Economics Perspectives

Author: Morris Silver

Publisher: Oxbow Books

ISBN: 1785708643

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 1178

Greek scholars have produced a vast body of evidence bearing on nuptial practices that has yet to be mined by a professional economist. By standing on their shoulders, the author proposes and tests radically new interpretations of three important status groups in Greek history: the pallak?, the nothos, and the hetaira. It is argued that legitimate marriage – marriage by loan of the bride to the groom – was not the only form of legal marriage in classical Athens and the ancient Greek world generally. Pallakia – marriage by sale of the bride to the groom – was also legally recognized. The pallak?-wifeship transaction is a sale into slavery with a restrictive covenant mandating the employment of the sold woman as a wife. In this highly original and challenging new book, economist Morris Silver proposes and tests the hypothesis that the likelihood of bride sale rises with increases in the distance between the ancestral residence of the groom and the father’s household. Nothoi, the bastard children of pallakai, lacked the legal right to inherit from their fathers but were routinely eligible for Athenian citizenship. It is argued that the basic social meaning of hetaira (companion) is not ‘prostitute’ or ’courtesan,’ but ‘single woman’ – a woman legally recognized as being under her own authority (kuria). The defensive adaptation of single women is reflected in Greek myth and social practice by their grouping into packs, most famously the Daniads and Amazons.
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Essays on Law, Society, and Politics

Author: Edward M. Harris

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 113945689X

Category: History

Page: 486

View: 4629

This volume brings together essays on Athenian law by Edward M. Harris, who challenges much of the recent scholarship on this topic. Presenting a balanced analysis of the legal system in ancient Athens, Harris stresses the importance of substantive issues and their contribution to our understanding of different types of legal procedures. He combines careful philological analysis with close attention to the political and social contexts of individual statutes. Collectively, the essays in this volume demonstrate the relationship between law and politics, the nature of the economy, the position of women, and the role of the legal system in Athenian society. They also show that the Athenians were more sophisticated in their approach to legal issues than has been assumed in the modern scholarship on this topic.
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A Sourcebook

Author: Jane Rowlandson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521588157

Category: History

Page: 406

View: 6311

The period of Egyptian history from its rule by the Macedonian Ptolemaic dynasty to its incorporation into the Roman and Byzantine empires has left a wealth of evidence for the lives of ordinary men and women. Texts (often personal letters) written on papyrus and other materials, objects of everyday use and funerary portraits have survived from the Graeco-Roman period of Egyptian history. But much of this unparalleled resource has been available only to specialists because of the difficulty of reading and interpreting it. Now eleven leading scholars in this field have collaborated to make available to students and other non-specialists a selection of over three hundred texts translated from Greek and Egyptian, as well as more than fifty illustrations, documenting the lives of women within this society, from queens to priestesses, property-owners to slave-girls, from birth through motherhood to death. Each item is accompanied by full explanatory notes and bibliographical references.
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Mythologies of Birth in Ancient Greece and Rome

Author: Maurizio Bettini

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022603996X

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 368

View: 9336

If you told a woman her sex had a shared, long-lived history with weasels, she might deck you. But those familiar with mythology know better: that the connection between women and weasels is an ancient and favorable one, based in the Greek myth of a midwife who tricked the gods to ease Heracles’s birth—and was turned into a weasel by Hera as punishment. Following this story as it is retold over centuries in literature and art, Women and Weasels takes us on a journey through mythology and ancient belief, revising our understanding of myth, heroism, and the status of women and animals in Western culture. Maurizio Bettini recounts and analyzes a variety of key literary and visual moments that highlight the weasel’s many attributes. We learn of its legendary sexual and childbearing habits and symbolic association with witchcraft and midwifery, its role as a domestic pet favored by women, and its ability to slip in and out of tight spaces. The weasel, Bettini reveals, is present at many unexpected moments in human history, assisting women in labor and thwarting enemies who might plot their ruin. With a parade of symbolic associations between weasels and women—witches, prostitutes, midwives, sisters-in-law, brides, mothers, and heroes—Bettini brings to life one of the most venerable and enduring myths of Western culture.
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A Source Book in Translation

Author: Mary R. Lefkowitz,Maureen B. Fant

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801883095

Category: History

Page: 420

View: 3195

This highly acclaimed collection provides a unique look into the public and private lives and legal status of Greek and Roman women of all social classes-from wet nurses, prostitutes, and gladiatrixes to poets, musicians, intellectuals, priestesses, and housewives. The third edition adds new texts to sections throughout the book, vividly describing women's sentiments and circumstances through readings on love, bereavement, and friendship, as well as property rights, breast cancer, female circumcision, and women's roles in ancient religions, including Christianity and pagan cults.
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Author: Jacqueline Fabre-Serris,Alison Keith

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421417634

Category: History

Page: 360

View: 2573

The martial virtues—courage, loyalty, cunning, and strength—were central to male identity in the ancient world, and antique literature is replete with depictions of men cultivating and exercising these virtues on the battlefield. In Women and War in Antiquity, sixteen scholars reexamine classical sources to uncover the complex but hitherto unexplored relationship between women and war in ancient Greece and Rome. They reveal that women played a much more active role in battle than previously assumed, embodying martial virtues in both real and mythological combat. The essays in the collection, taken from the first meeting of the European Research Network on Gender Studies in Antiquity, approach the topic from philological, historical, and material culture perspectives. The contributors examine discussions of women and war in works that span the ancient canon, from Homer’s epics and the major tragedies in Greece to Seneca’s stoic writings in first-century Rome. They consider a vast panorama of scenes in which women are portrayed as spectators, critics, victims, causes, and beneficiaries of war. This deft volume, which ultimately challenges the conventional scholarly opposition of standards of masculinity and femininity, will appeal to scholars and students of the classical world, European warfare, and gender studies. -- Kurt Raaflaub, Brown University, coeditor of Raymond Westbrook’
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A Sourcebook

Author: Bonnie MacLachlan

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1441104755

Category: History

Page: 248

View: 5353

The study of women in the ancient Mediterranean world is a topic of growing interest among classicists and ancient historians, and also students of history, sociology and women's studies. This volume is an essential resource supplying a compilation of source material in translation, with suggestions for further reading,Ã? a general bibliography, and an index of ancient authors and works. Texts come from literary, rhetorical, philosophical and legal sources, as well as papyri and inscriptions, and each text will be placed into the cultural mosaic to which it belongs. Ranging geographically from the Greek mainland and the communities along the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, to Egypt and the Greek West (modern day southern Italy and Sicily), the volume follows a clear chronological structure. Beginning in the eighth century BCE the coverage continues through Archaic and Classical Athens concluding with the Hellenistic era.Ã? Ã?Â
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A Critical Analysis of Classical Legal Texts

Author: David Solomon Jalajel

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317302737

Category: Religion

Page: 330

View: 386

Islamic law has traditionally prohibited women from being prayer leaders and heads of state. A small number of Muslims today are beginning to challenge this stance, but they face considerable opposition from the broader Muslim community. ‘Women and Leadership in Islamic Law’ examines the assumption within much existing feminist scholarship that the patriarchal nature of pre-Islamic and early Muslim Near Eastern Society is the primary reason for the development of Islamic legal rulings prohibiting women from leadership positions. It claims that the evolution of Islamic law was a complex process, shaped by numerous cultural, historical, political and social factors, as well as scriptural sources whose importance cannot be dismissed. Therefore, the book critically examines a broad survey of legal works from the four canonical Sunni schools of law to determine the factors that influenced the development of the legal rulings prohibiting women from assuming various leadership roles. The passages that elaborate rulings about women’s leadership are presented in translation as an appendix to the research, and are then subjected to a variety of critical analyses to identify the reasons, influences, and assumptions underlying those rulings. This is the first time works of all four schools of law have been subjected to this kind of analysis for the express purpose of determining the extent to which gender attitudes have influenced and determined the rulings. This book will therefore be a vital resource for students and scholars of Islamic Studies, Religious Studies and Gender Studies.
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Author: Ariadne Konstantinou

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1474256775

Category: History

Page: 208

View: 4600

Women's mobility is central to understanding cultural constructions of gender. Regarding ancient cultures, including ancient Greece, a re-evaluation of women's mobility within the household and beyond it is currently taking place. This invites an informed analysis of female mobility in Greek myth, under the premise that myth may open a venue to social ideology and the imaginary. Female Mobility and Gendered Space in Ancient Greek Myth offers the first comprehensive analysis of this topic. It presents close readings of ancient texts, engaging with feminist thought and the 'mobility turn'. A variety of Olympian goddesses and mortal heroines are explored, and the analysis of their myths follows specific chronological considerations. Female mobility is presented in quite diverse ways in myth, reflecting cultural flexibility in imagining mobile goddesses and heroines. At the same time, the out-of-doors spaces that mortal heroines inhabit seem to lack a public or civic quality, with the heroines being contained behind 'glass walls'. In this respect, myth seems to reproduce the cultural limitations of ancient Greek social ideology on mobility, inviting us to reflect not only on the limits of mythic imagination but also on the timelessness of Greek myth.
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Author: Susan Deacy,Fiona McHardy

Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic

ISBN: 9781472531568

Category: History

Page: 208

View: 5622

At the heart of this study is the violent crime committed in ancient Greek society against women and by women. These themes, intensely debated and increasingly the focus of current research, have grown in importance within the wider study of gender and sexuality in the ancient world. The authors examine the portrayal of violence across a range of sources to develop a picture of gender and crime in ancient Greek law, literature, myth and society. The volume breaks new ground because it adopts an evolutionary biological approach to the subject, in particular by examining the research of psychologists Margo Wilson and Martin Daly, who in their studies of contemporary sexual crime mooted that sexual jealousy is at the root of the majority of violent acts including murder. Deacy and McHardy explore how this modern study can be brought to bear on Classical scholarship around the same themes in antiquity. They also provide a methodological approach that combines 'grand' theory with an exploration of cultural contexts and historical development, considering the critiques from recent decades of the universalist premises that grew out of second wave feminism. Exploring such theoretical issues in the first two chapters, each subsequent, thematic, chapter will examine evidence from a range of sources and conclude with a case study.
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Author: Sharon L. James,Sheila Dillon

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119025540

Category: History

Page: 650

View: 3880

This publication presents an interdisciplinary, methodologically-based collection of essays on the study of women in the ancient world. It explores a broad range of topics relating to women in antiquity, including: mother-goddess theory; women in Homer, pre-Roman Italy, the Near East, women and the family, the state, and religion; Dress and adornment; female patronage; Hellenistic Queens; imperial women; women in late Antiquity; early women saints; and many more. PART I Women outside Athens and Rome 5; Case study I: The mother goddess in prehistory: debates and perspectives / Lauren Talalay; 1. Women in ancient Mesopotamia 11 / Amy R. Gansell; 2. Hidden voices: unveiling women in ancient Egypt / Kasia Szpakowska; 3. Looking for Minoan and Mycenaean women: paths of feminist scholarship towards the Aegean Bronze Age / Marianna Nikolaïdou; 4. Women in Homer / Cristiana Franco; 5. Etruscan women: towards a reappraisal / Vedia Izzet; PART II The archaic and classical periods; Case study II: Sex and the single girl: the Cologne fragment of Archilochus / Sharon L. James; 6. Woman, city, state: theories, ideologies, and concepts in the Archaic and classical Periods / Madeleine M. Henry and Sharon L. James; 7. Women and law / Barbara Levick; 8. Women and medicine / Holt Parker; 9. Reading the bones: interpreting the skeletal evidence for women's lives in ancient Greece / Maria A. Liston; 10. Approaches to reading attic vases / Kathryn Topper; 11. Spartan girls and the Athenian Gaze / Jenifer Neils; 12.Interpreting Women in Archaic and Classical Greek Sculpture / A. A. Donohue; 13. Dress and adornment in archaic and classical Greece / Mireille M. Lee; 14. Women and religion in Greece / Eva Stehle; 15. Women and Roman religion / Lora L. Holland; 16. Women in Magna Graecia / Gillian Shepherd; PART III Women in a cosmopolitan world: the Hellenistic and late republican periods / Case study III: Hellenistic Tanagra figurines / Sheila Dillon; Case Study IV: Domestic female slaves in Roman comedy / Sharon L. James; 17. Female patronage in the Greek Hellenistic and Roman republican periods / Anne Bielman; 18. Women on Hellenistic grave Stelai: reading images and texts / Christina A. Salowey; 19. Female portraiture in the Hellenistic period / Sheila Dillon; 20. Women and family in Menander / Cheryl A. Cox; 21. Gender and space, 'public' and 'Private' / Monika Trümper; 22. Oikos Keeping: women and monarchy in the Macedonian tradition / Elizabeth D. Carney; 23. The women of Ptolemaic Egypt: the view from Papyrology / Maryline Parca; 24. Jewish women: texts and contexts / Laura S. Lieber; 25. Women, education, and philosophy / Marguerite Deslauriers; 26. Perceptions of women's power in the late Republic: Terentia, Fulvia, and the generation of 63 BCE / T. Corey Brennan; PART IV The beginnings of empire; Case Study V: Vergil's Dido / Sharon L. James; 27. Women in Augustan Rome / Judith P. Hallett; 28. Women in Augustan literature / Alison Keith; 29. Women on the Bay of Naples / Eve D'Ambra; 30. Early imperial female portraiture / Elizabeth Bartman; 31. Portraits, prestige, piety: images of women in Roman Egypt / Christina Riggs; PART V From empire to christianity; Case study VI: Female portraiture in Palmyra / Maura K. Heyn; 32. Women in imperial Roman literature / Rhiannon Ash; 33. Female portraiture and female patronage in the high imperial period / Rachel Meyers; 34. Women in Roman Britain / Lindsay Allason-Jones; 35. Public roles for women in the cities of the Latin West / Emily A. Hemelrijk; 36. Rari exempli femina: female virtues on Roman funerary inscriptions / Werner Riess; 37. Women in Late Antique Egypt / Jennifer Sheridan Moss; 38. Representations of women in late Antiquity and early Byzantium / Ioli Kalavrezou; 39. Becoming christian / Ross S. Kraemer; Appendix: Women in Late Antiquity (Apart from Egypt): A bibliography.
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Women, Agency, and the Trojan War

Author: Anthony F. Mangieri

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351863215

Category: Art

Page: 222

View: 3241

The Trojan War begins and ends with the sacrifice of a virgin princess. The gruesome killing of a woman must have captivated ancient people because the myth of the sacrificial virgin resonates powerfully in the arts of ancient Greece and Rome. Most scholars agree that the Greeks and Romans did not practice human sacrifice, so why then do the myths of virgin sacrifice appear persistently in art and literature for over a millennium? Virgin Sacrifice in Classical Art: Women, Agency, and the Trojan War seeks to answer this question. This book tells the stories of the sacrificial maidens in order to help the reader discover the meanings bound up in these myths for historical people. In exploring the representations of Iphigeneia and Polyxena in Greek, Etruscan, and Roman art, this book offers a broader cultural history that reveals what people in the ancient world were seeking in these stories. The result is an interdisciplinary study that offers new interpretations on the meaning of the sacrificial virgin as a cultural and ideological construction. This is the first book-length study of virgin sacrifice in ancient art and the first to provide an interpretive framework within which to understand its imagery.
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Author: Ian Worthington

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190263563

Category: Orators

Page: 416

View: 7223

In this biography---the first written in English for almost a century---Ian Worthington brings the great orator's career vividly to life. He provides a moving narrative of Demosthenes' humble and difficult beginnings, his fierce rivalries with other Athenian politicians, his victories and defeats in the public Assembly, and finally his posthumous influence as a politician and orator. In doing so, Worthington offers new insights into Demosthenes' motives and how he shaped his policy to achieve political power. Set against the rich backdrop of late classical Athens and Macedonia, this biography will appeal to all readers interested in the history and heritage of ancient Greece. All quotations from Demosthenes' speeches are translated and briefly discussed in order for both professional and non-professional readers to appreciate his rhetorical genius.
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A Manifesto

Author: Mary Beard

Publisher: Profile Books

ISBN: 1782834532

Category: Social Science

Page: 74

View: 9256

Number One Sunday Times Bestseller Why the popular resonance of 'mansplaining' (despite the intense dislike of the term felt by many men)? It hits home for us because it points straight to what it feels like not to be taken seriously: a bit like when I get lectured on Roman history on Twitter. Britain's best-known classicist Mary Beard, is also a committed and vocal feminist. With wry wit, she revisits the gender agenda and shows how history has treated powerful women. Her examples range from the classical world to the modern day, from Medusa and Athena to Theresa May and Hillary Clinton. Beard explores the cultural underpinnings of misogyny, considering the public voice of women, our cultural assumptions about women's relationship with power, and how powerful women resist being packaged into a male template. With personal reflections on her own experiences of the sexism and gendered aggression she has endured online, Mary asks: if women aren't perceived to be within the structures of power, isn't it power that we need to redefine? From the author of international bestseller SPQR: A History of Ancient Rome.
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Rhetoric, Relevance and the Rule of Law

Author: Vasileios Adamidis

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317168429

Category: History

Page: 244

View: 5431

There has been much debate in scholarship over the factors determining the outcome of legal hearings in classical Athens. Specifically, there is divergence regarding the extent to which judicial panels were influenced by non-legal considerations in addition to, or even instead of, questions of law. Ancient rhetorical theory and practice devoted much attention to character and it is this aspect of Athenian law which forms the focus of this book. Close analysis of the dispute-resolution passages in ancient Greek literature reveals striking similarities with the rhetoric of litigants in the Athenian courts and thus helps to shed light on the function of the courts and the fundamental nature of Athenian law. The widespread use of character evidence in every aspect of argumentation can be traced to the Greek ideas of ‘character’ and ‘personality’, the inductive method of reasoning, and the social, political and institutional structures of the ancient Greek polis. According to the author’s proposed method of interpretation, character evidence was not a means of diverting the jury’s attention away from the legal issues; instead, it was a constructive and relevant way of developing a legal argument.
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Author: Kenneth James Dover

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674362703

Category: History

Page: 246

View: 1339

To what extent and in what ways was homosexuality approved by the ancient Greeks? An eminent classicist examines the evidence--vase paintings, archaic and classical poetry, the dialogues of Plato, speeches in the law courts, the comedies of Aristophanes--and reaches provocative conclusions. A discussion of female homosexuality is included.
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A Sourcebook

Author: Bonnie MacLachlan

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1441109641

Category: History

Page: 248

View: 4273

The study of women in the ancient Mediterranean world is a topic of growing interest among classicists and ancient historians, and also students of history, sociology and women's studies. This volume is an essential resource supplying a compilation of source material in translation, with suggestions for further reading,Ã? a general bibliography, and an index of ancient authors and works. Texts come from literary, rhetorical, philosophical and legal sources, as well as papyri and inscriptions, and each text will be placed into the cultural mosaic to which it belongs. Ranging geographically from the Greek mainland and the communities along the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, to Egypt and the Greek West (modern day southern Italy and Sicily), the volume follows a clear chronological structure. Beginning in the eighth century BCE the coverage continues through Archaic and Classical Athens concluding with the Hellenistic era.Ã? Ã?Â
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